Bill Gates: Why I’m Digging Deep Into Alzheimer’s

By Bill Gates
November 13, 2017

In every part of the world, people are living longer than they used to. Thanks to scientific advancements, fewer people die young from heart disease, cancer, and infectious diseases. It's no longer unusual for a person to live well into their 80s and beyond. My dad will celebrate his 92ndbirthday in a couple weeks, a milestone that was practically unimaginable when he was born.

This fact—that people are living longer than ever before—should always be a wonderful thing. But what happens when it's not?

The longer you live, the more likely you are to develop a chronic condition. Your risk of getting arthritis, Parkinson's, or another non-infectious disease that diminishes your quality of life increases with each year. But of all the disorders that plague us late in life, one stands out as a particularly big threat to society: Alzheimer's disease.

You have a nearly 50 percent chance of developing the disease if you live into your mid-80s.

MORE: www.gatesnotes.com/Health/Digging-Deep-Into-Alzheimers

www.alz.org/documents_custom/2016-facts-and-figures.pdf

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Bibliography: Medicare (page 37 of 37)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Medicare for All website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Yung-Ping Chen, Washington General Accounting Office, Ed Bryant, and Karen F. Folk.

Folk, Karen F., Ed. (1995). Consumer Interests Annual. Volume 41. American Council on Consumer Interests Annual Conference (41st, Washington, D.C., March 15-18, 1995). This proceedings contains the texts of 5 invited papers and 28 refereed papers. The following are among the papers included: "Consumer Interest in the 1990's and Beyond" (Turner); "Esther Peterson and the Consumer Movement" (Galbraith); "The Public's Right to Government Information" (English); "Partnerships in Fighting Consumer Fraud" (Armstrong et al.); "Building Linkages in the Consumer Interest" (Schuchardt, Garman, Hogarth); "Retirement Decisions" (Hong, Yu); "Retirement Timing Decisions of American Men" (Kolodinsky, Avery, Pelch); "Confidence in a Financially Secure Retirement" (DeVaney); "Financial Preparation for Retirement" (Malroutu, Xiao); "Factors Affecting Human Capital Expenditures of Female-Headed Households" (Jang); "Do Marital Status and Presence of Children Affect Women's Wage Rate?" (Wang); "Impact of the Expanded Earned Income Tax Credit on Work Incentives for Welfare Recipients in North Carolina" (Walden); "Financial Knowledge and Behavior of Welfare Recipients" (Marlowe, Godwin, Maddux); "Wife's Employment and Food Expenditures Away from Home" (Jensen, Yen); "Welfare Analysis of Agricultural Policies Using Complete Demand Systems for Different Representative Households in the U.S." (Zuo, Chern); "Lifecycle, Financial and Attitudinal Characteristics of Charitable Donors" (Drollinger, Johnson); "Transaction Costs, Value Structures, and the Economic Organization of Marital Incomes" (Fletcher); "On Taking a Values-focused Approach to the Teaching of Consumer Economics" (Garman, Leech, Ellerbrock); "Protesting Food Price Rises in Retail Markets" (Friedman); "Consumerism in Korea" (Rhee, Lee); "Global Consumer Education" (MacGregor, Greenfield); "Cigarette Consumption in China" (Wang, Halbrendt, Jensen); "Are All Debts Created Equally?" (Godwin); "Determinants of Bank and Retail Credit Card Use" (Choi, DeVaney); "Households Showing Financial Characteristics of Potential Bankrupts" (Yieh, Widdows); "Trends in Environmental Marketing Claims Since the FTC (Federal Trade Commission) Guides" (Mayer et al.); "Consumer Activism to Secure Ecological Objectives" (Friedman); "Consumer Education for Limited Resource Families" (Hogarth, Harrison, Cascio); "Impact of Medicare HMOs (Health Maintenance Organizations) on Business, Private Consumers, and Government (Steiman, Reiboldt); "Portrayal of Children in Advertisements in Selected Magazines" (Hood et al.); "Housing Affordability" (Combs, Combs, Ziebarth); and "Household Demand System Analysis" (Fox). Also included are abstracts/descriptions of 12 refereed showcase and poster presentations; summaries of 10 panel, workshop, and invited paper sessions; and abstracts of 4 graduate student papers. Descriptors: Access to Information, Adult Education, Advertising, Consumer Economics

Bryant, Ed, Ed.; And Others (1997). Serving Individuals with Diabetes Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired: A Resource Guide for Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors. Designed for vocational rehabilitation counselors, this book provides information about diabetes and treating diabetes. Much of the material previously appeared as articles in "Voice of the Diabetic" and is written not just by doctors and diabetes professionals, but also by members of the National Federation of the Blind (NFB) Diabetes Action Network, and people with personal experiences, encouragement, and insights to share. Part 1 provides an introduction to diabetes and includes: "Myths about Diabetes: What You Tell Your Clients" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); "What Is Diabetes Mellitus?" (Arturo Rolla); "Diabetic Dye Disease" (Prema Abraham); and "A Note on 'Brittle' Diabetes" (NFB Diabetes Action Network). Part 2 addresses self-management and includes: "New Dietary Guidelines for Diabetes Management" (Mimi Moore); "Review of Oral Diabetes Medications" (Peter J. Nebergall); "Diabetes and Exercise" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); "About Insulin" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); "Insulin Measurement Devices" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); "Blind Diabetics Can Draw Insulin without Difficulty" (Ed Bryant); "I've Gotten Attached to My Insulin Pump" (Veronica Elsea); "New Insulin" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); "Talking Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems" (Ed Bryant); "Non-Invasive Glucose Monitors" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); "Diabetes and the Feet" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); and "Medicare Pays for Diabetic Footwear" (NFB Diabetes Action Network). Part 3 discusses current medical issues and includes: "Kidney Failure, Dialysis, and Transplantation" (Ed Bryant); "Pancreas Transplantation: Should Blind Diabetics Be Excluded?" (Francisco S. Escobar); "Arthritis and Diabetes: A Common Association" (Thomas Pressly); "Diabetes and Yeast Infections" (Diana W. Guthrie); "Hypoglycemia and How to Deal with It" (Ed Bryant); "Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); "Diabetes and Men's Sexual Health" (Ed Bryant); "Diabetic Ketoacidosis" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); and "Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum" (NFB Diabetes Action Network). Part 4 focuses on employment issues and includes a series of articles by the NFB Diabetes Action Network, including: "Diabetes and the IWRP"; "Blind Diabetics at Work"; "The Use of Braille by Blind Diabetics"; "Health Insurance"; and "Scleral Shells." Part 5 addresses emotional aspects of diabetes and includes: "The Emotional Side" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); "How I Went Blind…and Then What" (Ed Bryant); and "My Transformation" (Betty Walker). An appended list relates informational resources and product resources.   [More]  Descriptors: Assistive Devices (for Disabled), Blindness, Coping, Diabetes

Chen, Yung-Ping (1994). Equivalent Retirement Ages and Their Implications for Social Security and Medicare Financing, Gerontologist. Projected implications of population aging are based on a definition of retirement age as 65. This article discusses the concept of "equivalent retirement ages" as a method for determining appropriate age for normal retirement and points out usefulness and limitations of raising normal retirement age as a policy instrument. Descriptors: Aging (Individuals), Financial Needs, Health Care Costs, Older Adults

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources. (1987). Medicare and Medicaid: Stronger Enforcement of Nursing Home Requirements Needed. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Special Committee on Aging, U.S. Senate. At the request of Senator John Heinz, the General Accounting Office (GAO) conducted a study on the quality of care provided to nursing home residents to determine the extent of repeated noncompliance with federal requirements that could affect resident health and safety and to evaluate the adequacy of federal and state enforcement actions to correct the deficiencies. The study was conducted in Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Kansas, and Wisconsin. The GAO identified nursing home requirements that most directly affected resident care, health, or safety; analyzed nursing homes' compliance with those requirements during the four most recent inspections; developed detailed case studies on 26 judgmentally selected nursing homes to evaluate the adequacy of enforcement actions; reviewed federal and state laws relating to nursing home care; evaluated potential alternative sanctions; and interviewed federal, state, and private sector officials. The results revealed that repeated noncompliance was widespread, that nursing homes with serious deficiencies avoided penalties, and that alternative penalties were needed. Based on these findings, the GAO recommended passage of federal legislation to establish a wide range of alternative sanctions for noncompliance with nursing home requirements.   [More]  Descriptors: Compliance (Legal), Federal Legislation, Law Enforcement, Nursing Homes

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Bibliography: Medicare (page 36 of 37)

This bibliography is selected and organized by the Medicare for All website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Jack L. Brock, Douglas S. Sebesta, Bethesda Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Ed Bryant, Mary L. Durham, Carl H. Hitchner, Washington Congress of the U.S, Washington National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Bernice Neugarten, and Mitchell P. LaPlante.

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging. (1987). Developments in Aging: 1986. Volume 1. A Report of the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session. This document is the first volume of a two-volume Senate report describing actions taken during 1986 by the Congress, the administration, and the Senate Special Committee on Aging which are significant to older Americans. It summarizes and analyzes federal policies and programs that are of continuing importance for older persons and their families. Chapter 1 provides an overview of Social Security and focuses on old age and survivors insurance and disability insurance. A prognosis for the future of Social Security is given. Chapter 2 gives an overview of employee pensions and discusses private pensions, state and local public employee pension plans, federal civil service retirement, military retirement, and railroad retirement. Chapter 3 provides an overview of taxes and savings and gives a prognosis. Chapter 4 looks at employment, chapter 5 examines Supplemental Security Income, and chapter 6 focuses on food stamps. Chapter 7 gives an overview of health care and discusses Medicare, health benefits for retirees of private sector employers, and health research and training. Long-term care is considered in chapter 8. Chapter 9 presents an overview of housing programs, then concentrates on federal housing programs and innovative housing arrangements. Chapter 10 examines energy assistance and weatherization and chapter 11 discusses the Older Americans Act. Chapter 12 contains an overview of social, community, and legal services and describes block grants, homeless services, education, Older American volunteer programs, transportation, and legal services. Chapter 13 examines the federal budget. Supplemental materials are provided, including summaries of the committee's hearings held in 1985 and lists of committee reports, prints, and hearings dating from the early 1960s.   [More]  Descriptors: Aging (Individuals), Community Services, Employment, Federal Aid

Vanselow, Neal A. (1996). The Physician Workforce: Issues for Academic Medical Centers. Changes in the system for the delivery of health care constitutes a challenge for U.S. academic medical centers (AMCs), which are being called on to produce physicians who can function effectively in the 21st century. This paper discusses issues facing AMCs and suggests some steps that might be taken to deal with the challenges these issues present. There is considerable evidence that the demand for physicians is decreasing as the United States moves from a delivery system based on fee for service to one based on managed care. In addition, there is an oversupply in many specialties, and the oversupply of specialists seems likely to last for many years. Other problems are faced by the geographic and racial maldistribution of physicians. Minorities are still underrepresented in the physician workforce. Still another issue is the concern that current medical education and training programs are not preparing physicians adequately for practice in a health care setting dominated by managed care. The numbers and types of physicians needed in the future will be influenced heavily by developments occurring in other segments of the health care industry. Some steps are already being taken to address some of these issues. Many medical schools are revising their curriculums to incorporate items of importance to managed care. There is also some optimism that the problems of physician oversupply will be addressed in the near future and Congress has requested that the Institute of Medicine develop some options it can consider in revising Medicare graduate medical education programs. (Contains 36 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Delivery Systems, Health Services, Higher Education, Medical Education

Older Women's League, Washington, DC. (1989). The Womanly World of Long Term Care: The Plight of the Long Term Care Worker. Gray Paper. Long-term care workers (those who are paid to provide custodial care for long-term patients in nursing homes or at home) must care for a growing number of increasingly disabled or dependent persons. They are working for agencies and institutions under growing pressure to increase productivity. They face new training and competency requirements, and most work for low wages and few benefits, a situation that is unlikely to change soon. This crisis is real and will only get worse. The burdens of cost containment cannot be borne largely by an exploited female work force. As comprehensive long-term care programs are debated, questions of financing and reimbursement are not the only issues. Service delivery is a central issue. Who will provide daily care? How will providers be recruited, trained, and retained? The solutions will require a new model of care. Nursing aides and home health aides are oppressed by the acute medical model that still dominates long-term care services, as "skilled" and "custodial" categories of care created by Medicare lock them into underclass status. Are these workers truly "unskilled," is the real issue the disdain in which caregiving and nurturing is held? Since the general perception is that anyone can do it, and those who do are nearly all women, the work is not truly valued. Long-term care workers and their advocates are responding to these pressures by organizing to ensure both the quality of long-term care and the quality of worklife for paid long-term care workers. (Includes 37 reference notes.) Descriptors: Caregivers, Employer Employee Relationship, Employment Practices, Futures (of Society)

Health Resources Administration (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD. (1977). Health of the Disadvantaged – Chart Book. This chart book on the health of the disadvantaged contains major published and previously unpublished data. The major areas that are covered are: health status, utilization of services, manpower, and financial expenditures. Also included are supplementary tables which present more precise data, and additional information. The charts show that: (1) for most critical measures of disease, the poor compared to the non-poor and racial and ethnic minorities compared to whites had higher incidences, (2) the higher incidences of disease for racial and ethnic minorities were partially accounted for by socio-economic factors, (3) the amount of contact with medical services increased significantly for the poor and racial minorities between 1964 and 1973, (4) racial minorities and the poor use medical services to a lesser degree relative to their need in comparison to whites and the nonpoor, respectively, (5) racial minorities constitute five and one-half per cent of the health professionals and fourteen percent of all health occupations, (6) out-of-pocket expenses were twice as great for both whites and the nonpoor as compared to racial minorities and the poor, respectively, (7) disparities existed between whites and racial minorities as to the benefits received from medicare and medicaid; for instance, 75% greater payments were expended per white as compared to racial minority medicaid recipients, and (8) the poor and minorities were at a twofold disparity healthwise: they were in poorer health and they had less spent on them for health services. Poor minorities were at the greatest disparities on both accounts.   [More]  Descriptors: Charts, Demography, Disease Incidence, Ethnic Groups

National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC. (1992). The Financing of Mental Health Services for Children and Adolescents. National Institute of Mental Health and the Maternal and Child Health Bureau Workshop (Bethesda, Maryland, February 24-25, 1988). This collection consists of the technical papers presented at a federally sponsored workshop on financing of mental health services for children and adolescents. Individually, the papers reflect the fragmentation of the field–both the fragmented service delivery system and fragmented research on services and financing. Together, the papers form a critique of the present system and provide the outlines of how to remedy the problems that characterize the present system of care and how to create a coordinated system of care. Papers have the following titles and authors: "Comprehensive Health Care for Children and Adolescents: Implications for Financing Mental Health Services" (Julius B. Richmond); "Suffer the Children: The History of Financing Child Mental Health Services" (Mary Jane England); "Financing Children's Mental Health Services: Analytical Perspectives from Medicare Data for Psychiatric Hospitalization" (Marc P. Freiman); "Mental Health Care for Children and Adolescents in Health Maintenance Organizations" (Maureen Shadle and Jon B. Christianson); "Financing Child and Adolescent Inpatient Mental Health Services through Private Insurance" (Constance Horgan and Thomas McGuire); "An Analysis of Medicaid Coverage Policies Affecting Access to Children's Mental Health Services" (Harriet B. Fox); "National Special Education Programs as a Vehicle for Financing Mental Health Services for Children and Youth" (John A. Butler); "Diagnosis-Related Groups and Child Psychiatry: Determinants of Inpatient Resource Use Based on CHAMPUS Data" (Agnes Rupp); "Economic Aspects of Investments in Preventing Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents" (Richard G. Frank); "The Impact of Mental Health Treatment on Use of Services by Children" (Barbara Starfield and Kelly Kelleher); "Health Care for Children with Autism: Utilization, Financing and Expenditures" (Arnold Birenbaum and Dorothy Guyot); "Family Economic Contribution to the Care of Children/Adolescents with Mental Health Problems" (Deborah D. Franks); "Assessing National Data Bases Related to Financing Mental Health Services for Children and Adolescents" (Margaret McManus); and "Workshop Summary: Financing Mental Health Care for Children and Adolescents: A Gestaltist View of Fragmented Research and Services" (Leonard Saxe and Theodore Cross).   [More]  Descriptors: Adolescents, Autism, Children, Delivery Systems

Sebesta, Douglas S.; LaPlante, Mitchell P. (1996). HIV/AIDS, Disability, and Employment. Disability Statistics Report 6. This report on HIV/AIDS, disability, and employment analyzes data from the AIDS Cost and Services Utilization Survey of 1991-1992, a longitudinal study of 1,949 HIV-infected men and women. The report examines the diagnostic history of people living with HIV and its relation to function, disability, and labor force participation over time. Study participants were interviewed six times over an 18-month period. Text, graphs, and tables present data on the following areas: demographics of the study population, HIV diagnostic categorization, health insurance coverage, Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI), functional and activity limitations, measures of depressive symptomatology, labor force participation, and occupational status. Highlights of the study included the following: (1) 33 percent of study participants were covered by private health insurance, 38 percent had Medicare or Medicaid, and 29 percent had neither private nor public health coverage; (2) as diagnostic severity increased, the likelihood of private insurance coverage decreased; (3) men were far more likely to be receiving SSDI than women; (4) women were far more likely to have been denied disability insurance than men; (5) at each stage of HIV disease, women were more likely to report depression; and (6) over half the study population was out of the labor force at the time of the initial interview, with an additional ll percent unemployed but looking for work. Appendices provide technical notes and medical condition and symptom codes. Findings indicate that to encourage greater labor force participation of people with HIV and AIDS, attention must be given not only to reducing funcational disability but also the employer attitudes and access to health insurance and other work-related benefits and workplace accommodations.   [More]  Descriptors: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Costs, Depression (Psychology), Disabilities

Brock, Jack L., Jr. (1992). Information Dissemination: Innovative Ways Agencies Are Using Technology. Testimony before the Government Information, Justice, and Agriculture Subcommittee, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives. This testimony discusses ways in which some federal government agencies use technology to provide the public with cheaper, faster access to a wider range of information which can be searched and manipulated in ways never possible on the printed page. Technologies included in the discussion are compact disc-read only memory (CD-ROM), electronic bulletin board systems (BBSs), databases, voice messaging and facsimile transmission (FAX), microcomputers, floppy disks, computer networks, and online systems. Some databases from federal agencies that are available CD-ROM are discussed: the Geologic Long-Range Inclined Asdic (GLORIA)-East Coast from the U.S. Geological Survey; the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and the Federal Information Resources Management Regulation (FIRMR) from the General Services Administration; the Classification and Search Support Information System-Classification (CASSIS-CLSF) from the Patent and Trademark Office of the Department of Commerce; and the National Trade Data Bank from the Department of Commerce. Also discussed are a trial CD-ROM project at the National Agricultural Library; the Economic Bulletin Board of the Department of Commerce; Project HERMES, a pilot program which transmits Supreme Court decisions via personal computer and modem to subscribers; the use of voice messaging and facsimile transmission by the Office of Public Affairs at the Department of Agriculture (AgNewsFAX); and the Health Care Financing Administration (HSFA) Medicare pricing table, which has been issued on two floppy disks. Government Printing Office participation in such activities and the use of Internet to disseminate government information are also mentioned. Ordering information for technology examples is appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Access to Information, Computer Networks, Databases, Electronic Mail

Haveman, Robert H., Ed. (1977). A Decade of Federal Antipoverty Programs; Achievements, Failures and Lessons. This book contains seven papers prepared for a 1975 conference which addressed the progress and setbacks experienced during the first decade of the War on Poverty. Included with each paper are two commentaries by conference discussants. The seven papers deal with issues such as the origins of the War on Poverty, its education, health, and income-maintenance programs, and its community action, legal services, and antidiscrimination policies. Some papers point out that the War on Poverty was successful. For example, it is noted that medicare and medicaid led to increases in the access of poor people to medical care services. The Community Action Program's success with increasing the political participation of blacks is yet another example of success. Also successful was the Legal Services Program. In contrast, evidence is presented that indicates that the education and training programs of the War on Poverty were not successful. Other papers, indicate that the success of the War on Poverty is inconclusive. It is noted that the new income-maintenance programs and changes in old ones did reduce the poverty gap between 1965 and 1972 substantially, but that the policies adopted were inefficient, and in some ways inequitable as well. The poverty programs discussed are not evaluated in the same way by all the authors. Similarly, there is disagreement as to why the War on Poverty originated. Finally, an overview essay which introduces the book, cites statistical evidence that substantial progress toward reducing poverty was made during the decade. As a result of this, it is speculated that the United States will shift its attention from combating poverty to the more general issue of reducing income inequality. Descriptors: Conference Reports, Educational Programs, Failure, Federal Programs

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging. (1988). Future of the Rural Elderly. Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (Pittsburg, Kansas, June 13, 1988). This document contains testimony of witnesses in a field hearing on the future of the rural elderly. The opening statement by Representative Bob Whittaker (Kansas) notes that the aging of America creates a more difficult time for the rural elderly than their urban neighbors. Distance and low population density magnify the difficulties of inadequate medical care, low retirement income, and lack of transportation. Speakers discuss a volunteer network of services for the elderly, shared housing alternatives, types of group therapy, senior citizens law projects, and home nursing services. One speaker describes good accounting practices for transportation which allow multi-funded systems to meet financial reporting requirements of human service agencies purchasing rides. Problems of health care and mental health care delivery to the rural elderly are particularly prevalent. Problems include health manpower, support for family practice residency training, the high cost of medical education, the plight of rural hospitals, fee differentials under Medicare, and medical liability issues. A program that enlists the help of school nurses and counselors, public health nurses, and social workers as part time mental health workers in order to provide more manpower without additional budget is described. This document includes testimony by Monda Spool, director of North Central/Flint Hill Area Agency on Aging in Manhattan, Kansas; Karen Olson, president of Combinations, Inc. in St. Louis, Missouri; Ron Beane from the Department of Elder Affairs, Des Moines, Iowa; Debbie Ford of Beverly Enterprises in Hot Springs, Arkansas; Pat Donahue from Kansas Legal Services, Inc. in Topeka; Joan Remmers, a registered nurse from Sabetha, Kansas; Dr. Ernie Chaney from the University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita; and Art Spies, administrative director of the National Institute for Rural Health Policy in Des Moines, Iowa. An appendix includes additional material from Linda Reinhardt, chairman of the Women's Committee, Kansas State Farm Bureau; and Dr. H. Ivor Jones of Shawnee Missouri, Kansas.   [More]  Descriptors: Health Facilities, Health Needs, Health Personnel, Health Programs

Bryant, Ed, Ed. (1999). Al Servicio del Diabetico no Vidente o Discapacitado Visual: Guia de Recursos para Consejeros Vocacionales de Rehabilitacion (Serving Individuals with Diabetes Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired: A Resource Guide for Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors). Designed for Spanish-speaking vocational rehabilitation counselors, this book provides information about diabetes and treating diabetes. Much of the material previously appeared as articles in "Voice of the Diabetic" and is written not just by doctors and diabetes professionals, but also by members of the National Federation of the Blind (NFB) Diabetes Action Network and people with personal experiences, encouragement, and insights to share. Part 1 provides an introduction to diabetes and includes: "Myths about Diabetes: What You Tell Your Clients" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); "What Is Diabetes Mellitus?" (Arturo Rolla); "Diabetic Eye Disease" (Prema Abraham); and "A Note on 'Brittle' Diabetes" (NFB Diabetes Action Network). Part 2 addresses self-management and includes: "New Dietary Guidelines for Diabetes Management" (Mimi Moore); "Review of Oral Diabetes Medications" (Peter J. Nebergall); "Diabetes and Exercise" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); "About Insulin" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); "Insulin Measurement Devices" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); "Blind Diabetics Can Draw Insulin without Difficulty" (Ed Bryant); "I've Gotten Attached to My Insulin Pump" (Veronica Elsea); "New Insulin" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); "Talking Blood Glucose Monitoring Systems" (Ed Bryant); "Non-Invasive Glucose Monitors" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); "Diabetes and the Feet" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); and "Medicare Pays for Diabetic Footwear" (NFB Diabetes Action Network). Part 3 discusses current medical issues and includes: "Kidney Failure, Dialysis, and Transplantation" (Ed Bryant); "Pancreas Transplantation: Should Blind Diabetics Be Excluded?" (Francisco S. Escobar); "Arthritis and Diabetes: A Common Association" (Thomas Pressly); "Diabetes and Yeast Infections" (Diana W. Guthrie); "Hypoglycemia and How To Deal with It" (Ed Bryant); "Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); "Diabetes and Men's Sexual Health" (Ed Bryant); "Diabetic Ketoacidosis" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); and "Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum" (NFB Diabetes Action Network). Part 4 focuses on employment issues and includes a series of articles by the NFB Diabetes Action Network, including: "Diabetes and the IWRP;""Blind Diabetics at Work;""The Use of Braille by Blind Diabetics;""Health Insurance;" and "Scleral Shells". Part 5 addresses emotional aspects of diabetes and includes: "The Emotional Side" (NFB Diabetes Action Network); "How I Went Blind…and Then What" (Ed Bryant); and "My Transformation" (Betty Walker). An appended list relates informational resources and product resources. Material is presented in Spanish.   [More]  Descriptors: Adults, Assistive Devices (for Disabled), Blindness, Coping

Durham, Mary L.; And Others (1991). Participation of Higher Users in a Randomized Trial of Medicare Reimbursement for Preventive Services, Gerontologist. Found that older adults enrolled in Health Maintenance Organization who were higher users of health care services were willing to participate in health promotion programs. People aged 85+ and those with chronic diseases were slightly more reluctant to participate. Close proximity to clinic and family physician support were important correlates of participation. Descriptors: Chronic Illness, Health Promotion, Health Services, Older Adults

Neugarten, Bernice (1983). Health Care, Medicare, and Health Policy for Older Policy: A Conversation with Arthur Flemming, American Psychologist. A former Federal official holds that a national health insurance program is the most comprehensive way to provide physical and mental health care for the elderly, but considers various cost-saving options within the current system. Also stresses the need to integrate older adults into the productive sector of American society. Descriptors: Age Discrimination, Federal Programs, Health Needs, Medical Services

Vontz, Marilyn J. (1997). The First Seventy Years: Bryan Memorial Hospital School of Nursing and Bryan Memorial Hospital, 1926-1996. A Seventieth Anniversary Publication. Celebrating the 70th anniversary of Bryan Memorial Hospital School of Nursing (BMHSN) and Bryan Memorial Hospital, in Nebraska, this monograph reviews the development and achievements of the school and hospital. Chapter 1 (1900-1919) provides a history of nursing in the early 20th century, while chapter 2 (1920-1929) describes the establishment of the hospital in 1920 and BMHSN in 1926. Chapter 3 (1930-1939) examines the effects of the Great Depression on nursing education in the country, the nursing school, and the hospital, while chapter 4 (1940-1949) discusses the impact of World War II on nursing, focusing on the demands to join the military nursing service and the resulting shortage of nurses. Chapter 5 (1950-1965) highlights developments during the 1950s and 1960s, focusing on the growth experienced by the hospital and school and the development of the associate degree in nursing through the community college. Chapter 6 (1966-1980) reviews the continued expansion of the school in the 1970's and national changes in health care, including the expansion and reorganization of the health care industry. Finally, chapter 7 (1981-1996) discusses the current situation of BMHSN and the impact of legislation governing the hospitalization of Medicare patients, the acute nursing shortage, alternative health insurance plans, and health care reform. Contains 333 references. Data on BMHSN enrollment and finances are included for each chapter. Appendixes provide data on nursing program enrollment in 1911; nursing schools in Nebraska; BMHSN application forms, graduates from 1929-96, and curriculum; and a graduate questionnaire.   [More]  Descriptors: Allied Health Personnel, Community Colleges, Educational Facilities, Educational Finance

Hitchner, Carl H. (1983). Medicare and Medicaid Reimbursement of Teaching Hospitals and Faculty Physicians, Journal of College and University Law. The funding of postgraduate medical education through the "approved educational activities" of teaching hospitals needs to reevaluated. Since it is considered impossible to separate patient case and educational activities, drawing the line for financial purposes between these activities will be controversial and critical for teaching hospitals. Descriptors: Compensation (Remuneration), Costs, Federal Programs, Financial Support

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Bibliography: Medicare (page 35 of 37)

This bibliography is independently curated for the Medicare for All website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Washington National Rural Center, Alida Barletta, Maurice Belanger, Stephen Moore, Washington Department of Education, Lee Valas, Atlanta Cable News Network, Harry M. Bradley, Thomas A. Carlin, and Jack Russell.

Valas, Lee (1978). Some Latent Effects of Current Social Policies on the Elderly. Current social policies for the elderly are intended to assure a better standard of living, promote adequate medical treatment, and assure safe and clean housing, but they have unintended consequences. It is argued that these social policies serve to keep older people in a state of dependency, poverty, and segregation. Some social policies may be based on two assumptions: (1) disengagement theory, which provides a supposedly healthy adjustment to change in the life cycle by stressing decreased social roles of the elderly, and (2) activity theory, which limits the activity and engagement of the elderly in their social roles. Three federal programs for the elderly are cited and illustrate the manifest or intended functions and the latent or unintended functions of social policy.  The Social Security Benefits Program is intended to help elderly citizens meet their basic needs. Yet the retired worker with an income of $100,000 from investments can receive the full benefits from the program, while a worker who hasn't accumulated the necessary savings to assure an adequate income after retirement may be penalized for working. Medicare and Medicaid programs have the intent of independence without the burden of high medical costs. Yet the policies encourage dependency and assist the nursing home industry. The federal housing programs have discouraged exploration of other housing alternatiVes to single-home residences. The author concludes that more attention should be paid to the latent consequences of programs for the elderly. Descriptors: Federal Aid, Federal Programs, Health Programs, Housing

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging. (1980). Work after 65: Options for the 80's. Hearing before the Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session. Part 3–Orlando, Fla. The problem of senior citizens in Florida who need to work are chronicled in this third part of the Senate Special Committee on Aging, Work after 65 hearings, conducted in Orlando, Florida, in July, 1980. During the Florida hearing, representatives of various government programs for senior citizens, professors of education and economics and private employers and employment agencies described the services their agencies or offices provided for persons over age 65, and the problems these seniors encounter. Themes running through the testimony were that pensions and Social Security provide inadequate incomes for most retired persons, and, therefore, the people need jobs. However, they often encounter discrimination in finding a job and in being paid a fair wage. However, experience has shown that older workers are as capable as younger ones if they are allowed to work. The witnesses urged more help for senior citizens in finding employment and in filling out forms required, as well as suggestions for increasing Medicare benefits. Many personal anecdotes of productive senior citizens are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Learning, Age Discrimination, Aging (Individuals), Demography

Cable News Network, Atlanta, GA. (1998). CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. April 1-30, 1998. CNN Newsroom is a daily 15-minute commercial-free news program specifically produced for classroom use and provided free to participating schools. These daily Classroom Guides are designed to accompany the broadcast, and contain activities for discussing top stories, headlines, and other current events topics; each guide also includes World Wide Web links. A program rundown with segment and program times is provided at the beginning of each daily guide. The topics of top stories for April, 1998 are: President Clinton in Africa (April 1); the judge's dismissal of Paula Jones' civil case against President Clinton (April 2); pilgrims in Mecca making a journey known as Hajj (April 3); South Korea's welcome of North Korea's proposal for renewed peace talks (April 6); the Moslem trek to Mount Arafat as part of the Hajj (April 7); peace talks in Northern Ireland (April 8); tobacco companies backing out of settlement talks with the United States Government (April 9); President Clinton's visit to tobacco farmers in Kentucky (April 10); a peace agreement in Northern Ireland (April 13); merger of two banking giants in the United States (April 14); President Clinton's hosting of a town hall meeting focusing on sports and racial issues (April 15); Columbia astronauts' mission to study the nervous system in space (April 16); death of Pol Pot (April 17); Summit of the Americas (April 20); Chinese dissident Wang Dan, exiled to the United States wanting to return to Beijing (April 21); Earth Day (April 22); possible epidemic of AIDS in eastern Europe (April 23); death of James Earl Ray (April 24); conflict in Kosovo (April 27); United Nations continued sanctions against Iraq (April 28); reprieve for social security and Medicare (April 29); and the 50th anniversary of the birth of the Israeli nation (April 30). Descriptors: Class Activities, Current Events, Discussion (Teaching Technique), Educational Television

National Rural Center, Washington, DC. (1976). Report and Recommendations of the Southern Rural Health Conference (Nashville, Tennessee, October 10-12, 1976). Included in this report on the Southern Rural Health Conference (held in Nashville, Tennessee in 1976) are: (1) an introduction (details the conference goals); (2) a program agenda; (3) "Summation: Southern Rural Health Conference" (a speech); (4) "Health Care and Rural Development" (a speech); (5) "Innovative Approaches to the Delivery of Primary Health Services in the Rural South" (a speech); (6) recommendations made by the conference task forces (Utilization of Primary Health Practitioners; Group Practice in Rural Areas; Student Organizations and Medical School Rural Health Activities; Innovative Governmental Programs; Environmental and Preventive Health; Education of Health Professionals in Rural Areas; Financing of Health Care; Minority and Women's Health Concerns; Health Planning and Resource Development; and Legal Implications and Problems); (7) a participant list (275 people attended the conference including rural health experts, members of health agencies, educators, legislators, doctors, primary health practitioners, and concerned citizens). Among the task force recommendations highlighted in the summary are: Medicare, Medicaid, private health insurance policies, and a national insurance program should cover primary health center services; health resources development should be tied directly to national health insurance; rural-urban inequities should be addressed by equalizing payments for services under public financing programs.   [More]  Descriptors: Conference Reports, Delivery Systems, Financial Support, Government Role

1972 (1972). An Evaluative Study of Department of Health, Education and Welfare Services to Ethnic Minorities. Phase 1. Final Report. This is the final report on the first phase of a two phase comprehensive study of the delivery of Department of Health, Education and Welfare (DHEW) services to ethnic minorities. Phase one of the study was concerned with the extent to which services were delivered to Asian Americans, American Indians, and Spanish speaking people. The study sample included six states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Illinois, New York, and Oklahoma. This report presents a summary of an eight volume report. It presents profiles on Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Pilipinos, Koreans, and Samoans) and American Indians, living on and off reservations. These profiles emphasize three points: That all of the ethnic minority groups have serious needs and problems with their health, education and welfare; that because each ethnic group is unique, services must be delivered to each group in an individualized and culturally sensitive manner; that each of the communities studied had serious complaints about the availability and method of delivery of services, as well as about the lack of cultural sensitivity and ethnic minority staff in Department of Health, Education and Welfare (DHEW)-funded programs at the local level. Summaries of in-depth studies of nine DHEW programs are presented. These programs are: Hill-Burton program, Medicare, maternal and child health services, community health centers, vocational education, bilingual education, educationally deprived children Title I, ESEA, Rehabilitation Services Administration, Head Start.  Descriptors: American Indians, Asian Americans, Cultural Influences, Delivery Systems

University of Southern Maine, Portland. Human Services Development Inst. (1987). Partners in the Process: A Handbook on Transition for School and Community Programs Serving Learning Disabled Young Adults. The handbook is intended for school and community programs helping learning disabled young adults make the transition from school to work. The first chapter describes development of the Transition Project by York County (Maine) and project components including referral, assessment, membership on the Transitional Pupil Evaluation Team, the Individual Transition Plan, and tracking. The second chapter examines the roles of the learning disabled young adult, the parents, the school, and the transition specialist. Options for the young adult are considered next, in the third chapter, and include continuing education, non-traditional educational programs, college and university programs, vocational technical institutes, and apprenticeships. The fourth chapter considers options in the world of work including part-time work and work study, employment services, and choosing the right job. Aspects of independent living and independent living programs are considered next. The following chapter provides information on sources of help including financial assistance (social security, Medicaid and Medicare, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, food stamps, and veterans' assistance); support organizations; networks and agencies (including parent organizations, legal assistance, state agencies, and professional assistance). Sources of further information are provided throughout the handbook. Appended are a learning disabilities assessment summary form, a functional assessment profile, and an individual transition plan form.   [More]  Descriptors: Agencies, Apprenticeships, Community Programs, Daily Living Skills

Gerald, Debra, E., Ed. (2000). The Federal Forecasters Conference–2000. Papers and Proceedings (11th, Washington, DC, September 14, 2000). The 11th Federal Forecasters Conference provided a forum where 180 forecasters from different federal agencies and other organizations could meet and discuss forecasting in the United States. The theme for this conference was "Forecasting, Policy, and the Internet." In the morning session, a panel presentation featured three speakers. Neilson C. Conklin presented "Delivering Numbers in the New Economy," and Signe I. Wetrogan discussed "Internet Use in Disseminating Population Estimates and Projections at the Census Bureau." The third panel presentation was "Information Technology Research for Federal Statistics" by Andrew A. White. Papers (in some cases, abstracts) given at the concurrent afternoon sessions were: (1) "U.S. Population Projections to the Year 2100" (Frederick W.  Hollmann); (2) "Accuracy of the U.S. Census Bureau National Population Projections and Their Respective Components of Change" (Tammany J. Mulder); (3) "Evaluation and Optimization of Population Projections Using Loss Functions" (Charles D. Coleman); (4) "Projections of the Number of Households and Families in the United States: 1999 to 2025" (Ching-li Wang); (5) "Will Strong U.S. Growth Continue? A Look at U.S. Growth in the 1990's and Its Implications for the U.S. Growth Outlook–Abstract" (Paul Sundell, Robert W. Arnold, and Ralph Monaco); (6) "The U.S. Economic Outlook for 2001: Slower Growth Finally Arrives" (Paul Sundell); (7) "The Outlook for Productivity Growth: Are We in a New Economy?" (Robert W. Arnold); (8) "Forecasting Prescription Drug Utilization, Including the Impact of Medicare Expansion-Abstract" (Walter Bottiny and James M. Cultice); (9) "The Dental Requirements Model (DRM): Forecasting the Dentist Requirements for Low-Income Children" (Judith A. Cooksey and Gayle R. Byck); (10) "Forecasting the Physician Workforce" (Richard A. Cooper); (11) "Assessing the Impact of Government Legislation on BSE in the U.K." (Sandy D. Balkin); (12) "The Accuracy of Recent Short-Term Employment Forecasts Obtained by Employer Surveys: The State of Illinois Experience" (Roy L. Pearson, George W. Putnam, and Waleed K. Almousa); (13) "Data Obsolescence and Forecasting" (Othmar W. Winkler); (14) "The Impact of Changes in Both Final and Intermediate Demand on the Structure of Industry Employment, 1978 to 1995" (Art Andreassen); (15) "Business Inventory Practices: Model and Analysis" (Jay Berman); (16) "Modeling the Demand for Skills" (Charles Bowman); (17) "Do Region-Specific Exchange Rate Indices Improve Regional Forecasts? The Case of State-Level Manufacturing Employment" (Amanda Hollenbacher, Azure Reaser, and David B. Yerger); (18) "Are Rising Farm Prices Useful Inflation Indicators: the 1970s and 1980s and 1990s?" (David Torgerson); (19) "An Improved Phase Plane Model of the Business Cycle" (Foster Morrison and Nancy L. Morrison); (20) "Forecasting the Convergence of the Rural and Urban Wage and Salary Earnings Distributions" (John Angle); (21) "The Veteran Population Forecasting Model" (Allen Berkowitz and Stephen Meskin); (22) "Dynamic Programming of Forecasting Apparatus" (Elliot Levy); (23) "Seasonal Adjustment Using the X12 Procedure" (Tammy Jackson and Michael Leonard); (24) "Experiences with Placing ERS Food CPI and Expenditure Forecasts on the Web–Abstract" (Annette Clauson); (25) "The DataWeb and DataFerrett: Accessing Data via the Internet–Abstract" (Bill Hazard); (26) "Modeling Soybean Prices in a Changing Policy Environment" (Barry K. Goodwin, Randy Schnepf, and Erik Dohlman); (27) "An Assessment of a 'Futures Method' Model for Forecasting Season Average Farm Price for Soybeans" (Erik Dohlman, Linwood Hoffman, Randall Schnepf, and Mark Ash); and (28) "Cointegration Tests and Price Linkages in World Cotton Markets–Abstract" (Stephen MacDonald). Each paper contains references. (Contains 43 tables and 59 figures.)   [More]  Descriptors: Evaluation Methods, Expenditures, Federal Government, Futures (of Society)

Carlin, Thomas A.; And Others (1979). Aspects of Welfare and Poverty in Rural America: Two Issue Briefs. The two papers in this document were prepared in response to requests by the Department of Agriculture and the White House staff for briefs on welfare and poverty issues. The first paper, "The Administration's Welfare Reform Proposal: Impact on Rural Areas" by Robert Hoppe, discusses major provisions of (1) the proposed Welfare Reform Amendment (H.R. 4904) which would attempt to standardize Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) Program and make it more consistent from state to state and (2) the Work and Training Opportunities Act (H.R. 4425) which would increase employment opportunities for people eligible for AFDC. The brief concludes that most of the proposal's provisions appear beneficial to rural people. The second paper, "The Farm Differentiation in the Poverty Threshold: Should It Be Changed?" is by Thomas A. Carline, Linda M. Ghelfi, and Janet W. Coffin. It presents a short history of changes in the farm differential since 1964 along with three arguments for its complete elimination from the official poverty definition. Among the implications discussed are the impact elimination of the farm differential would have on programs and statistics, the broad-based support for eliminating the differential, and the impact of in-kind income (food stamps, housing, Medicare and Medicaid) on urban and rural poverty.   [More]  Descriptors: Definitions, Employment Opportunities, Farmers, Federal Legislation

Moore, Stephen; Belanger, Maurice, Ed.; Barletta, Alida, Ed. (1998). A Fiscal Portrait of the Newest Americans. The fiscal impact the 25 million immigrants now living in the United States have on the country's economy were studied, focusing on the total taxes paid by immigrants each year and whether these taxes cover the costs of public services they use. Census data and other national studies were used to answer these questions. Overall, it is apparent that immigrants and their children bring long-term economic benefits to the United States. The National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences has found that immigrants raise the incomes of U.S.-born workers by at least $10 billion each year. The NRC also estimates that the typical immigrant and his or her children pay $80,000 more in taxes than they will receive in federal, state, or local benefits over their lifetimes.  Immigrants who become citizens typically pay more in taxes than do native-born Americans. Conservative estimates suggest that immigrant families paid $133 billion in direct taxes to federal, state, and local governments in 1997. The best predictors of immigrant payment of taxes are skills, education, and ability to speak English. Immigrants with lower levels of education and limited English proficiency are more likely to use government services. The age profile of immigrants, who tend to arrive in the prime of their working years, makes them large net contributors to the Social Security and Medicare programs. The value of immigrants should not be measured simply by their fiscal impact. The enrichment of culture and overall vitality they bring to the United States are benefits to all Americans. (Contains 9 tables, 9 figures, and 107 endnotes.)   [More]  Descriptors: Cultural Differences, Economic Impact, Educational Attainment, Immigrants

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance. (1987). Catastrophic Health Insurance. Hearing before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session. Part 2 of 3. This document, the second in a series of three which present the text of Senate hearings on catastrophic health insurance, focuses on the impact of catastrophic health insurance on consumers and health care providers. Testimony is included by these witnesses: (1) Senator Pete V. Domenici; (2) Wilbur Cohen, professor of Public Affairs, University of Texas; (3) William Hutton, executive director, National Council of Senior Citizens; (4) John Denning, president, American Association of Retired Persons; (5) John P. McDaniel, president, Midlantic Health Care Group; (6) Ruth Constant, president, Port Arthur Home Health, Beaumont Home Health and Wichita Home Health, Victoria, Texas; (7) Paul Willging, executive director, American Health Care Association; (8) Jerald R. Schenken, member, Board of Trustees, American Medical Association; (9) Richard Materson, president, American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; (10) Gary Shorb, president, Regional Medical Center at Memphis, Tennessee; (11) J. E. Stibbards, chairman, Board of Trustees, National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions; (12) Doris Nash, public affairs director, Cancer Care, Inc.; (13) Camilla M. Miller, member, Board of Trustees, National Alliance for the Mentally Ill; and (14) Shervert Frazier, Medical Director, McClean Hospital (Massachusetts). Prepared statements by Senators George J. Mitchell, John Heinz, and John H. Chafee are included. A comparison of the selected Medicare catastrophic insurance bills is presented.   [More]  Descriptors: Federal Legislation, Health Care Costs, Health Insurance, Hearings

Department of Education, Washington, DC. Clearinghouse on the Handicapped. (1987). Pocket Guide to Federal Help for Individuals with Disabilities. This brochure provides basic information to handicapped persons (specifically those who are blind, deaf, or developmentally disabled), or to the parents or guardians of a handicapped child, on the principal federally funded government services for which they may be eligible. It provides advice on how to begin looking for services provided in a state or locality and where to write for additional help if a problem is encountered. Specific sections summarize program components and services for: (1) developmental disabilities; (2) vocational rehabilitation and independent living; (3) education (Head Start, schools for the blind and deaf, library services for special groups, and federal student financial aid); (4) employment (federal jobs, federal job information centers, state and local government jobs, the Job Training Partnership Program, and Small Business Administration programs); (5) financial assistance (social security disability insurance benefits and supplementary security income); (6) medical assistance (Medicare, Medicaid, Crippled Children's Services, and the Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment Program); (7) civil rights (Office of Civil Rights, Office of Federal Contract Compliance, and the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board); (8) housing (loans and rent assistance); (9) tax benefits; and (10) transportation (air and rail).   [More]  Descriptors: Civil Rights, Developmental Disabilities, Educational Opportunities, Elementary Secondary Education

Russell, Jack, Ed.; And Others (1988). Appalachian Regional Commission: 1987 Annual Report. The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) used its $105 million appropriation for fiscal year 1987 to support three major program areas in the 13 state region: (1) creating and retaining regional jobs; (2) assisting in construction of basic facilities, particularly water and sewer systems, in the region's 90 poorest counties; and (3) working toward completion of the Appalachian Development Highway System. Economic and human resource development activities focused on community infrastructure, vocational training, assistance to small businesses, and "regional program initiatives," a new category. This latter category included support for 63 school dropout prevention projects; 31 adult literacy programs; educational programs promoting entrepreneurship; education programs tailored to the needs of specific business sectors; health care services for rural and indigent populations; and technology transfer projects addressing industrial obsolescence or new employment opportunities. ARC compiled and analyzed social and economic data on the region, by county, and supported studies to identify areas that could be strong regional research and development centers and also to: assess the effect of changes in the Medicare payment system on rural hospitals; study medical indigence; analyze the economic development potential of continuing care retirement communities; and evaluate education reform undertaken in rural and small school districts since 1983. The report includes details on appropriations and distribution of funding by project type and by state; state and regional maps; a directory of local development districts; and county population change data.   [More]  Descriptors: Community Development, Dropout Prevention, Economic Development, Elementary Secondary Education

Bradley, Harry M.; And Others (1967). A Program for the Educational Enrichment of the Senior Citizens of Polk County. Final Report. Upon finding that more than 10% of the county's population of 215,000 (1966) were retirees and other senior citizens who had educational needs which were not being met by any single educational agency, members of the Polk Junior College staff developed and implemented a project under the Higher Education Act of 1965 for the purpose of fulfilling such needs. Advisory committee members were selected who, in turn, recommended contact persons in each community to assist in locating teacher-trainees, places to conduct sessions, and program onsultants. Communities chosen to participate in the project were narrowed to Lakeland, Winter Haven, Bartow, Fedhaven, and Nalcrest, Teacher-trainees (varying from housewives to college professors), who subsequently were appointed to the college's part-time staff, selected topics of interest to the senior citizens. Two-hour seminars were held twice weekly for a 6-week period. Trainees served as forum coordinators and discussion leaders. Consultants (college faculty and specialists from the local area as well as from state and county agencies) gave lectures and/or demonstrations. Attendance reached approximately 100 per session, with 500 to 600 attending the meetings on a regular basis. Topics generally focused on health (social security, medicare, and medical problems) and on social studies (Florida history, international relations, and current events).   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Adult Programs, Educational Legislation, Federal Programs

St. John, A. P. (1988). Presentation at DOL [Department of Labor] Conference on Aging. This document addresses the issue of the aging American workforce by describing the current demographics of the Chrysler Corporation workforce, reviewing Chrysler's future projections, and discussing some of the changes being implemented by Chrysler to accommodate the aging Chrysler active and retiree population. It compares average ages of hourly workers, non-management salaried workers, and management workers at Chrysler in 1977 and in 1987 and looks at the ratio of active workers to retirees in 1977 (2.6:1), 1987 (1.3:1), and projected ratios for 1990 through 1995 (1.1:1), 2000 (1.04:1) and 2015 (.94:1). Reasons for the projected low ratio are discussed. Trends in life and health insurance benefit costs for employees and retirees are examined and Chrysler's challenge of maintaining the quality of care and coverage while reducing and containing benefit costs is considered. Measures implemented at Chrysler to meet the challenges of an aging workforce are discussed, including the implementation of efficient alternative health care delivery options, individual case management programs for persons in an inpatient care environment, a research proposal to examine more cost effective management of Medicare, an education and wellness program for employees and retirees, and a life planning seminar to help employees prepare for retirement. Descriptors: Aging (Individuals), Employment Patterns, Fringe Benefits, Futures (of Society)

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging. (1985). Long-Term Care in America: The People's Call for Federal Action. Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session. This document presents prepared statements and testimony from the Congressional hearing on the federal government's role in providing long-term care for the elderly in America. Opening statements from the chairman and three members of the Select Committee on Aging focus on the financial burden of long-term care for America's elderly, the anticipated growth of an aging population, and the need for alternatives to high-cost institutional care. Testimony is given from witnesses including the chairman and members of the Close-Up Foundation in Arkansas, the chairman of the Arizona Governor's Advisory Council on Aging, a staff member of the Oregon Governor's Ombudsman's Program, Utah's state director of the American Association of Retired Persons, the chairman of the Rural Elderly Task Force for the Select Committee on Aging, and several retirees. The needs of the elderly, especially for in-home medical and social services from the community are stressed. Suggestions are offered for federal support of long-term care, including: (1) federal incentives to insurance companies for long-term care; (2) extension of Medicare to cover long-term care; (3) incentives to keep people in their own homes and out of institutions through federally supported programs or extension of existing federal programs; (4) the use of tax credits to help relieve the financial burden on families of the elderly; and (5) the use of paramedicals to provide in-home care. The appendix includes statements from other state agency representatives and retirees.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Day Care, Agency Cooperation, Federal Aid, Federal State Relationship

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Bibliography: Medicare (page 34 of 37)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the Medicare for All website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development. New York State Education Dept, Alexander Boros, Houston. Texas Consortium of Geriatric Education Centers, Brenta G. Davis, Lindell C. Northup, Washington Congress of the U.S, Washington National Council on Disability, Washington General Accounting Office, Mitchell P. LaPlante, and Carole D. Dillard.

Davis, Brenta G. (1983). The Impact of Federal Legislation on Education in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences. Educational programs in the clinical laboratory sciences are responsible for producing professionals who can function in new environments. In addition, it is the responsibility of all individuals in the profession, regardless of professional role/function to assume the role of educator to prepare students in a way that is appropriate and useful to what is needed in real life. Recent federal legislation and related regulations, such as Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG's) and the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act (TEFRA) will provide those in clinical laboratory sciences with exciting opportunities to achieve this goal, including more opportunities to assume roles as laboratory administrators/managers. Whatever the outcome in Washington, advances in science/technology will continue to be made, and these advances must be reflected in the scientific/technical preparation of clinical professionals. New attitudes, skills (including communication skills), and knowledge will be needed. Although TEFRA and DRG's (the basis on which most hospitals will receive Medicare reimbursement) are a significant opportunity to move into professional roles, there are some potential dangers associated with them, especially for hospital/university-based educational programs. These dangers are elucidated so that those involved in educational activities can develop legitimate economic arguments to pursuade administrators to maintain programs. Descriptors: Allied Health Occupations Education, Communication Skills, Competence, Educational Objectives

National Council on Disability, Washington, DC. (1997). National Council on Disability. Annual Report. Volume 17, Fiscal Year 1996. This annual report of the National Council on Disability (NCD) describes major activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1996 in its role of advising the President and Congress on issues concerning people with disabilities. The NCD conducted the first-ever National Summit on Disability Policy which gathered 300 people to develop more than 120 comprehensive recommendations for the future of people with disabilities, and released several reports covering a variety of disability policy issues, including "Cognitive Impairments and the Application of Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act,""Improving the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Making Schools Work for All of America's Children Supplement,""Foreign Policy and Disability,""Guidance from the Graphical User Interface (GUI) Experience: What GUI Teaches about Technology Access,""Disability Perspectives and Recommendations on Proposals To Reform the Medicaid and Medicare Programs," and "Access to the Information Superhighway and Emerging Information Technologies by People with Disabilities." The research areas in which NCD worked are also described. Appendices include biographies of NCD members and staff, a listing of NCD publications, and the NCD mission statement.   [More]  Descriptors: Accessibility (for Disabled), Advisory Committees, Advocacy, Change Strategies

Northup, Lindell C. (1986). Making Sense of Health Care Plans: The Consumer's Guide to Health Care Coverage. A Leader Training Resource Kit. This leader training kit is designed to help leaders teach their audience about a major consumer purchase–health care coverage. It is organized so that the participants should be better able to (1) assess their individual/family health care needs; (2) use appropriate guidelines to select and purchase health care coverage in order to get the most protection for dollars spent; and (3) use their plan in order to maximize benefits. Each of the five unit guides contains an overview, consumer objectives, lesson outlines and suggested learning activities, fact sheets, and supplementary materials. Each guide is designed to be used independently of the others, depending on the audience and their needs. The guides cover the following topics: health care costs and major trends; matching health care needs with options for coverage; evaluating and selecting health care plans and policies; using health care plans to maximize benefits (filing health insurance claims, filing an insurance complaint in Ohio, and the new rules for health care coverage); and senior citizens and health care coverage (Medicare and supplemental polities). A glossary, crossword puzzle, and seven brief circulars containing practical advice for consumers complete the kit.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Consumer Economics, Consumer Education, Continuing Education

Dillard, Carole D.; And Others (1987). Health Economics Research: An Annotated Bibliography. This annotated bibliography lists books and journal articles published since 1976 which deal with health economics and which are based on health services research supported by the National Center for Health Services Research (NCHSR). Articles prepared by NCHSR staff are listed as intramural. All other articles cite the NCHSR grant or contract number that supported the research. The 193 citations appear alphabetically by author in one of seven categories according to their primary focus. "Alternative Delivery Systems" contains citations concerning health maintenance organizations, preferred provider organizations, freestanding emergency and ambulatory centers, and multihospital systems. "Hospital Economics" includes citations on rural hospitals, reimbursement, facility planning, market structure/competition, cost analysis, or casemix measurement. References to works on demand for services, indigent care, or access are included in "Income and Health." Citations under "Insurance/Financing" deal with the insurance industry, coverage/benefits, Medicare/Medicaid, corporate health plans, or catastrophic costs. Articles under "Long-Term Care" cover insurance/financing, alternative care settings, cost analysis, and deinstitutionalization. "Practice Patterns and Productivity" contains articles on variations in medical practice, supply/distribution of physicians, and the role of the non-physician. "Technology Assessment" includes articles on cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-benefits analysis, cost of illness, and diffusion of technology.   [More]  Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies, Delivery Systems, Economics, Health Facilities

Yeo, Gwen; Tully, Donna (1987). Model Geriatric Clerkship for Physician Assistant Students: The Continuum of Elder Care. Manual for Physician Assistant Programs. This manual is intended to acquaint the faculty of physician assistant (PA) training programs with a model geriatric clerkship and to assist them in the process in implementing a similar clerkship. A detailed outline of the curriculum goals of a geriatric clerkship is included. The next section contains curriculum units on the following topics: communication skills, evaluation of health status, management of common health problems in noninstitutional elderly persons, health promotion/disease prevention, family and elder counseling, and long-term care issues. Suggested criteria for establishing a clerkship are enumerated. The following implementation steps are discussed: obtaining administrative support; adapting the model clerkship to the individual clerkship structure of a given program; implementing a preclerkship geriatric curriculum; generating faculty support for the clerkship plan; locating, selecting, and negotiating with appropriate training sites; selecting clinic preceptors and providing faculty development as necessary; selecting or developing written and audiovisual training materials and evaluation forms; developing a learning experience schedule; recruiting and scheduling individual students; following students and evaluating their progress; and evaluating the clerkship program. (Ten appendixes include an annotated bibliography on the role of PAs in geriatric medicine, an abstract of Medicare provisions for reimbursement of PAs, lists of geriatric care centers, bibliographies of materials of geriatrics, lists of facilities providing geriatric care, and answers to the postassessment test.)   [More]  Descriptors: Allied Health Occupations Education, Behavioral Objectives, Clinical Experience, Communication Skills

Clark, Jane (1982). How the Budget Cuts Undercut Rural Women. This study describes the status of 34 million rural women and analyzes how they and their families will be directly affected by cuts in the 1983 federal budget in the areas of legal services, vocational education, domestic violence intervention, energy assistance and alternative energy development, public housing, unemployment compensation, social security benefits, public transportation, farm loans, child care, and civil rights enforcement. Described are impacts of tighter Farmer's Home Administration loan policies; elimination of Comprehensive Employment and Training Administration jobs; Volunteers in Service to America cutbacks and possible termination; higher education reductions in Guaranteed Student Loan Program, Pell Grants, and work-study program jobs; elementary education retrenchment reducing teacher and classroom aide jobs; and elimination of Women's Educational Equity Act funds which support development of teaching methods/materials promoting equal public education and compliance with federal anti-discrimination regulations. Other program cuts will affect the Low-Income Energy Assistance Program; Aid to Families with Dependent Children; Women, Infants, and Children program; Medicare; Medicaid; and Food Stamps. Separate sections outline program cuts which will adversely affect minority women, the poor, elderly women, and migrant farmworkers. A final section describes the consolidation of 57 separate programs into 9 block grants and their potential impact on the poor. Descriptors: Agriculture, Block Grants, Budgeting, Community Development

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. (1972). Health Services for Domestic Agricultural Workers, 1972: S. 3762 — To Extend the Program for Health Services for Domestic Agricultural Migrant Workers. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and the Subcommittee on Migratory Labor of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, 92d Congress, 2d Session, August 1, 1972. On August 1, 1972, the Subcommittee heard testimony on bill S. 3762 which would extend the program for health services for domestic agricultural migrant workers. The bill would extend the migrant health program for 5 years, with $100 million authorized for fiscal year 1973 and a $25 million increase for each of the following years. S. 3762 represented a first attempt to bring the funding level for migrant health care services into some appropriate relationship to the documented level of need. Among the witnesses were the Assistant Secretary for Health and Scientific Affairs and representatives from the Community Health Service, the Hidalgo-Starr Catholic Charities (San Juan, Texas), the Texas Rural Legal Aid, the Orange Cove (California) Clinica de Salubridad, the Clinica de Salubridad de Campesinos, the Yakima Valley Clinic (Grandview, Washington), and the Mirgrant Legal Action Program, Inc. (Washington, D.C.). Additional information included: (1) suggested amendments to the Medicare-Medicaid Programs to extend migrant workers coverage, (2) summary of nutritional problems in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, and (3) bilingual staff by project and region.   [More]  Descriptors: Agricultural Laborers, Delivery Systems, Federal Legislation, Federal Programs

AMT Events (1986). AMT's Position on Physician's Office Laboratories. The following standards are affirmed by the American Medical Technologists organization: (1) regardless of the size of the laboratory setting, the patient deserves the highest quality of laboratory service available; (2) certified personnel should be employed by physicians in office laboratories; (3) quality control should be mandatory and supported by an appropriate proficiency-testing program; (4) regardless of the setting, all laboratories should be measured against one set of regulations; (5) the kind and amount of testing done in a physician's office laboratory should determine the type of certified personnel necessary to do the job; (6) those responsible for the management of the physician's office laboratory should recognize and acknowledge testing limitations and use the resources of reference laboratories when necessary; (7) medical technologists should be used as consultants to physician's office laboratories when the scope of testing performed and equipment utilized go beyond the capability of the individuals employed in the facility; and (8) the laboratory should be directed and supervised by a physician, a recognized Medicare laboratory director, or a certified medical technologist. Five important issues are: (1) type of tests to be performed and by whom; (2) quality control and proficiency testing; (3) minimum personnel qualifications; (4) suggestions on how criteria could or should be enforced and by whom; and (5) in-house testing or the use of reference labs. Descriptors: Certification, Laboratory Procedures, Medical Technologists, Physicians

Boros, Alexander, Ed. (1989). Alcohol and the Physically Impaired: Special Focus, Alcohol Health & Research World. The articles in this special issue explore the connections between the dual disabilities of alcohol abuse and physical impairment, and reflect progress made in exploring the causes and treatments of alcohol abuse among the physically impaired. Selected articles include: "Results of a Model Intervention Program for Physically Impaired Persons" (Sharon Schaschl and Dennis Straw); "Alcohol Abuse and Traumatic Brain Injury" (Gregory Jones); "Alcohol Abuse and Persons Who Are Blind: Treatment Considerations" (Michael Nelipovich and Elmer Buss); "Treatment of Alcohol Abuse in Persons with Recent Spinal Cord Injuries" (Allen Heinemann et al.); "Intervention with Visually Impaired Children of Alcoholics" (Christine Saulnier); "Double Trouble: Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Orthopedically Impaired College Students" (Dennis Moore and Harvey Siegal); "Arthritic Disease and Alcohol Abuse" (David Nashel); "Epilepsy, Seizures, and Alcohol" (Michael Stoil); "Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse by the Physically Impaired: A Challenge for Rehabilitation Educators" (Bobby Greer); "Epidemiologic Bulletin No. 21: Alcohol-Related Morbidity among the Disabled: The Medicare Experience 1985" (Mary Dufour et al.); "Highlights from the 1987 National Drug and Alcoholism Treatment Unit Survey (NDATUS)" (Joan Harris and James Colliver); and "A New Agenda for Alcohol Research: The Institute of Medicine Reports on Causes and Consequences–A Summary."   [More]  Descriptors: Alcohol Abuse, Alcoholism, Blindness, College Students

LaPlante, Mitchell P. (1993). Disability, Health Insurance Coverage, and Utilization of Acute Health Services in the United States. Disability Statistics Report 4. This report uses data from the 1989 National Health Interview Survey to estimate health insurance coverage of children and nonelderly adults with disabilities and their utilization of physician and hospital care as a function of health insurance status. In part 1, national statistics on disability and insurance status are provided for different measures and categories of disability. Estimates of the percent of the population with various types of insurance coverage or with no insurance coverage are provided by sociodemographic and disability status. In part 2, logistic regression models controlling for sociodemographic factors measure the impact of insurance on utilization of health services. In part 3, the relationships of poverty, employment, and disability with private insurance, public insurance, and no insurance are examined in the context of policy options. Among highlights of the report's findings are: (1) an estimated 11.5 percent of the 35.3 million uninsured people in the United States have some activity limitation; (2) adults with activity limitation are slightly more likely than those without limitation to be uninsured; (3) men with severe disability have more access to Medicare than women, but women have more access to Medicaid; (4) children with activity limitation are as likely as those without limitation to be uninsured (about 15.8 percent); and (5) uninsured adults with disabilities have from 19 percent to 44 percent fewer physician contacts than similar adults with insurance. Extensive tables detail the study's findings. Appendices include standard error information and the questionnaires used in the surveys. (Contains 43 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Adults, Age Differences, Children, Demography

Texas Consortium of Geriatric Education Centers, Houston. (1993). Educational Resource Manual for Baccalaureate Social Work Field Instruction in Gerontology. This manual was designed to aid undergraduate social work students working in a model field-site program for gerontological social work education. It is based on work completed on an Administration on Aging project in Texas entitled, "A Statewide Faculty Development Program for Undergraduate Social Work Educators in Elder Care." The project's primary goal was to increase the number of social workers with the knowledge and skills needed to work with older persons, especially poor, frail, or minority elders who are at risk of losing their independence. The manual is organized by topic area with information on the following learning objectives: (1) Attitudes and Facts on Aging; (2) Aging and Ethnicity; (3) Communication and Interviewing Skills; (4) Assessments, including competence in daily living, cognitive status, depression, psychosocial evaluations, and case management; (5) Health Concerns and Health Care; (6) Understanding Community Services; (7) Linking Clients to Services; (8) Financial Issues, such as funding programs for long-term care, medicare and medicaid; and (9) Legal and Ethical Issues, such as case management, the Texas Natural Death Act, and the durable power of attorney for health care. Also included are bibliographic and audiovisual guides for both students and older people and their families.   [More]  Descriptors: Aging Education, Aging (Individuals), Daily Living Skills, Educational Gerontology

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources. (1987). Social Security. Little Success Achieved in Rehabilitating Disabled Beneficiaries. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Social Security, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives. The relationship between the Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) Program and vocational rehabilitation (VR) programs was reviewed. Focus was on the extent to which VR services are successful in returning SSDI beneficiaries to productive employment. The review was carried out in 10 states with widely varying practices in referring SSDI claimants to VR. These states accounted for nearly 40 percent of disability decisions made nationally in 1985. Only a small minority of disability beneficiaries–not more than 10-15 percent–were realistic prospects for rehabilitation and return to the work force. Generally, the disabled population was older and more severely disabled than other individuals with whom rehabilitation agencies work. Although about 12 percent of the disability beneficiaries were evaluated for rehabilitation services, only 1 percent left the rolls because of renewed work activity. Only about 3 in 1,000 beneficiaries left the benefit rolls after receiving services from a VR agency. Fears of losing disability cash benefits and Medicare coverage were reasons many beneficiaries chose not to participate in rehabilitation programs. A recommendation was that changes in the benefit payment structure could increase the number of beneficiaries who return to work. (Appendixes include instruments and data.)   [More]  Descriptors: Adults, Disabilities, Job Placement, Program Effectiveness

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources. (1986). Health Care: States Assume Leadership Role in Providing Emergency Medical Services. Report to Congressional Requesters. This document contains a report on state and local emergency medical services programs. It discusses the effect of the transition from federal to state leadership under the block grant and identifies the key issues affecting local delivery of services. The report includes an executive summary and five chapters. Chapter 1 discusses emergency medical services (EMS); the evolving federal role in EMS; and the objectives, scope, and methodology of the report. Chapter 2 examines how states use block grant funds to build on federal categorical initiatives. Chapter 3 concerns EMS access and dispatch and notes that a systematic, area-wide approach eludes many areas. Chapter 4 examines EMS systems seeking greater advanced life support coverage. Chapter 5 looks at cardiac and trauma care and notes that more systematic routing of trauma victims is needed. To avert a potentially negative federal effect on the development of specialized trauma care, the report recommends that the Department of Health and Human Services determine whether federal Medicare and state Medicaid reimbursement rates have an adverse financial impact on trauma centers. Further federal actions that could enhance state and local EMS programs are suggested. An annotated bibliography, seven tables, and eight figures are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Block Grants, Delivery Systems, Emergency Squad Personnel, Federal State Relationship

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development. (1970). Related General Information for Vocational Cooperative, Trade and Technical Education. (Reprint). The publication is a reprint of material revised over a period of years of use by teacher-coordinators of vocational industrial education. The material is designed to be used by teachers of general related information in preparing students to take their places in the world of work. Lesson outlines have been grouped into seven sections related to particular concerns that workers have in seeking employment–(1) orientation to, appraisal and evaluation of, vocational programs (four lessons); (2) getting a job (nine lessons concerning self-evaluation, job applications, interviews, employment agencies, etc.); (3) job practices and human relations (twelve lessons concerning first day on the job, accident prevention, wages, work habits, ethics in terminating employment, etc.); (4) personnel management and labor relations (six lessons directed to personnel organization, labor unions, and related topics); (5) regulatory agencies and legislation (seven lessons on Federal and State employment limitations, Social Security, Medicare and similar concerns); (6) business and industry (nine lessons on the structure and growth of industry and related factors); and (7) consumer economics and related topics (twelve lessons). An eighth section consists of twelve lessons on general topics. For each lesson, an outline of content and list of suggested references are provided.   [More]  Descriptors: Business, Career Education, Career Guidance, Consumer Economics

Cordes, Sam M. (1978). A Description and Analysis of Rising Health Care Expenditures. Extension Studies 77. Two concerns that underlie preoccupation with health care costs are that society may not be getting a "reasonable return" from increased expenditures and that the quantity of services per expenditure could be provided more cheaply. Concern arises because the "market" for health care deviates significantly from other "free enterprise" markets, it being the provider rather than the consumer who makes or helps make key decisions of what, when, and where to purchase services. Recent growth in expenditures, both per capita and as percentage of GNP, has been phenomenal, the largest share going to hospital care. Increased government financing and insurance payments have resulted in a decline of out-of-pocket expenditures (from 68% in 1950 to 30% in 1977), yet medical costs comprise the single most common cause of personal bankruptcies. Since Total Expenditures = Price Per Unit x Number of Units Purchased, policies aimed at controlling one will not necessarily control the other, given such factors as increased demand due to growth in health insurance, including Medicare and Medicaid, and production costs resulting from the introduction of cost-enhancing technology. Lack of systematic policy coordination also hinders control. It is recommended, then, that policies to limit hospital expansion and to regulate rates be implemented in concert, along with review mechanisms to reduce inappropriate service utilization in combination with policies that lead to a relatively scarce supply of hospital beds.   [More]  Descriptors: Cost Effectiveness, Costs, Economic Factors, Expenditures

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Bibliography: Medicare (page 33 of 37)

This bibliography is independently curated for the Medicare for All website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Rochelle Crane, Diane M. Doherty, John J. Korbel, Hartford. Div. of Vocational Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Douglas Caddy, Washington Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Henry C. Dethloff, Dorothy Siemon, Jane Porcino, and Starley Hunter.

Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, Washington, DC. (1986). Poverty Rises Faster When Non-Cash Benefits Counted. Poverty has risen faster in recent years under measures of poverty that include the value of non-cash benefits. The Census Bureau recently issued nine measures of poverty which make the poverty population appear unrealistically small. In summary, these measures do the following: (l) count non-cash benefits because they include household purchasing power but fail to exclude taxes that are withheld from earnings and reduce purchasing power; (2) compare income including non-cash benefits to a poverty threshold based on cash income only; and (3) in the case of the two measures showing the lowest numbers of people in poverty, assign such high values to Medicare and Medicaid that many of the elderly poor are considered to be above the poverty line, even if they have virtually no income for other necessities. The report points out the most serious problems with current poverty measures and it analyzes the use of non-cash benefits in terms of its distorting effects on poverty indicators and thresholds.   [More]  Descriptors: Economic Factors, Economically Disadvantaged, Eligibility, Low Income

Caddy, Douglas; Dethloff, Henry C. (1985). Insurance is Everybody's Business. Series on Public Issues No. 15. In this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, the workings of the American insurance industry, a central part of the American economy, are described. Insurance provides a means to transfer or spread risk, thus helping to assure economic survival despite chance, accident, or natural disaster. The discussion begins by considering the history of insurance from the time of Hammurabi to the present, with particular attention paid to the history of the insurance industry in the United States and the role of state regulation on the industry. Then insurance is defined and the differences between government and private insurance are discussed. Under private insurance, the difference between proprietary and cooperative insurers is explained. Also covered are the principle of risk, insurance contracts, underwriting and rating, and insurance losses. Life insurance, health insurance, automobile insurance, property insurance, and retirement and insurance are covered in separate sections. Among the areas discussed in these sections are types of coverage, rates, group and individual policies, Social Security, and Medicare. Descriptors: Business, Capitalism, Economics, Economics Education

American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC. (1988). Action for a Healthier Life: A Guide for Mid-Life and Older Women. Women must assert their special concerns and take action to control their health care and improve their health. Healthy practices throughout life, including the later years, can have a significant positive impact on the quality of life. Improvement of women's health means taking action through prevention, detection, and treatment. Preventive actions include: (1) eating right through sufficient intake of calcium and fiber, and limiting intake of fat and sodium; (2) getting exercise through finding a form of exercise that meets one's physical abilities, such as walking in the neighborhood, joining a fitness club or class, and looking for senior swim activities; (3) quitting smoking, first through changing to a brand lower in tar and nicotine and reducing the number of cigarettes smoked and then by joining a support group to kick the habit for good; and (4) keeping a healthy frame of mind through group participation, making regular visits to a community center, taking a class, volunteering, maintaining friendships, and reaching out to other women. Detection actions include an annual check-up and screening for blood pressure, cholesterol levels, colon cancer, breast cancer, and uterine cancer. Of special importance to older women is the ability to use the health care system effectively. Acting as a wise and assertive consumer of health care includes finding out about services available through Medicare/Medicaid, getting a second opinion if surgery is recommended, and expressing needs to one's doctor and insisting that he or she listen. (Additional resources are listed.) Descriptors: Females, Health, Medical Services, Older Adults

Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education. (1988). Nurse Assistant Instructor Guide. This document is designed to assist the teacher in a nurse assistant certification program. The program is intended to prepare students for entry-level employment in a long-term care facility or with a licensed home health care agency. The 135-hour course teaches basic skills in patient care that will qualify the student to assist the licensed practical nurse or the registered professional nurse in direct patient care. Introductory materials include a bibliography, list of audiovisual resources, and glossary. The course consists of 9 units and 72 lessons. Although the same scope of unit covers all lessons within the unit, a new set of student objectives accompanies each lesson. A lesson title page provides the objectives, supplementary teaching/learning items, teacher resources, and introduction of lesson. Other lesson materials may include an outline with definitions and basic subject matter; procedures for teacher demonstrations; classroom discussion topics or questions; classroom, laboratory, and other activities; evaluation items and answer keys; worksheets; and handouts. Units concern the nurse assistant, the client's environment, the client, safety, food service, personal care, elimination, restorative nursing, and special procedures. Appendixes include federal Medicare regulations, a reprint of Connecticut's Common Core of Learning, and a sample of a contractual agreement for Nurse Assistant Program.   [More]  Descriptors: Allied Health Occupations Education, Behavioral Objectives, Home Health Aides, Learning Activities

Korbel, John J. (1977). Poverty Status of Families Under Alternative Definitions of Income; Background Paper No. 17. This background paper provides the basis for evaluation of programs aimed at reforming social welfare programs. It analyzes the effect of current income transfer programs on poor families. Public expenditures for social welfare programs have grown four-fold while at the same time, the percentage of families in poverty has declined by only 30%. This is a result of the types of programs that account for most of the recent growth in the number of poor families and the inadequacies of the measures used to estimate families in poverty. There are three classes of social welfare expenditures; social insurance programs, cash assistance programs, and in-kind programs. In fiscal year 1976, social insurance programs, designed to replace reduced income, accounted for 68% of major government income-transfer payments. Most of the recent rapid growth has been in in-kind transfers, such as food stamps and medicare. Expenditures for in-kind transfers increased sixteen-fold over the last decade, and cash assistance increased four-fold. The effectiveness of transfer programs varies according to family type, race, age, and region of residence. Detailed statistical tables provide information on the assistance programs described.   [More]  Descriptors: Evaluation Methods, Evaluation Needs, Income, Low Income Groups

Hunter, Starley (1967). Change and Progress. A Comparative Study: Housing Project Survey 1964-1966, St. Louis, Missouri. In 1964, and again in 1966, a survey was made of sample populations of families living in a public housing project in St. Louis, Missouri. The purpose was to find family characteristics, their homemaking practices, and the effects of extension classes in home management and family economics, clothing, and food and nutrition. In 1966, it was found that there was a higher proportion of homemakers under 30, fewer with less than a fourth grade education, and more employed homemakers; incomes were slightly higher but there was a lower level of living. Participants in the homemaking classes in 1966, in contrast to nonparticipants, had a higher proportion of two parent families, were between 30 and 59 years of age, had incomes of $2,000 or more, had two full time workers or one or two part time workers, had larger families, spent more for food but did not have higher quality diets, and knew of Medicare and educational and recreational facilities. The most effective means of spreading information about the extension classes had been flyers and leaflets, followed by television, newspapers, and the Housing Digest.   [More]  Descriptors: Age, Clothing, Consumer Education, Educational Background

Brand, Mellie R. (1986). The Family & Life Education Program. The Family and Life Education program at Aims Community College (ACC) in Colorado began in 1967 as prenatal classes taught by volunteer instructors who were registered nurses with backgrounds in maternal-child health. Currently, the program, which is co-sponsored by ACC and North Colorado Medical Center, involves a program coordinator, three staff coordinators, and over 50 part-time instructors. While ACC provides salaries for the coordinators and instructors, instructional materials and audiovisual aids, full-time secretarial support, and advertising services, the Medical Center provides office space for the coordinators, classrooms for prenatal education, and part-time secretarial and administrative support. Classes are set up on a quarterly basis for one to three credit hours with an average of 16 participants per class. Three programs are offered: (1) Expectant Families, which includes classes in childbirth and pregnancy preparation taught by registered nurses or practitioners certified by the American Society of Psychoprophylaxis in Obstetrics; (2) Active Families, which includes classes in self-esteem, child abuse, remarriage, creative parenting, suicide, single parenting, and foster parenthood taught by educators, psychologists, social workers, and registered nurses; and (3) Senior Education Program, which includes classes in exercise, health awareness, hearing loss, Medicare, and nutrition taught by instructors with degrees in nursing, nutrition, physical education, gerontology, and education. Promotional materials on the Expectant Families and Active Families programs are included. Descriptors: Community Colleges, Cooperative Programs, Family Life, Family Life Education

Pierangelo, Roger; Crane, Rochelle (1997). Complete Guide to Special Education Transition Services: Ready-to-Use Help and Materials for Successful Transitions from School to Adulthood. This book is intended to provide a comprehensive guide to the transition of students from special education programs into adulthood. The 13 chapters address the following specific issues, with sample sub-topics indicated in parentheses: (1) fundamentals of transition services (self-determination, importance of keeping records); (2) transitional Individualized Education Plans (who determines what services are needed, adult service providers, and a transition planning timeline); (3) vocational education planning (assessments, rehabilitation services, supported employment, employment rights); (4) living arrangements (residential models, housing subsidies, respite care); (5) transportation concerns (travel training, paratransit systems); (6) recreational and leisure options (mastering leisure skill activities and leisure resources); (7) social skills (acquiring social skills, fostering relationships); (8) sexual issues (sexuality education, how particular disabilities affect sexuality); (9) communication and assistive technology (computer access, current technologies for specific impairments); (10) postsecondary educational options (financial aid, accommodations for specific disabilities, distance learning); (11) estate planning for parents (guardianship, the letter of intent, and wills); (12) insurance issues for parents (insurance policies, Medicare and Medicaid); and (13) financial concerns (Supplemental Security Income and Social Security Disability Insurance). Twelve appendices provide a comprehensive directory of additional resources. Descriptors: Assistive Devices (for Disabled), Disabilities, Education Work Relationship, Estate Planning

Tijerina, Andres A. (1977). Assessment of Needs and Coping Mechanisms of Elderly Mexican Americans. In March of 1977 a survey was conducted in Austin, Texas to determine the effectiveness of the Texas Department of Human Resources (DHR) service delivery and to obtain data on the social and cultural characteristics of urban Mexican American elderly. Interviews with 163 Supplementary Security Income recipients who were 65 years or older utilized questions in six categories: demographic information, transportation and communication, bilingualism, extended family, health, and interface with public service agencies. The study showed that isolation was one of the major problems facing the elderly, with transportation especially difficult. Eighty percent of the respondents lived with spouses or alone; 29% lived with their families. There was a definite pattern of stability regarding residence. Forty-one percent had immediate relatives in their neighborhood. Almost half of the respondents suffered from high blood pressure, arthritis or rheumatism. There was a high level of awareness of such services as food stamps, Social Security, Medicaid and Medicare. Some 63% of the old people believed that governmental agencies swamp information on clients. This may indicate some people might be reluctant to request services because of that fear. The subjects receiving DHR assistance indicated satisfaction with treatment they received, although nearly half would have liked different caseworkers. Descriptors: Bilingualism, Caseworker Approach, Communication Problems, Coping

National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC. (1986). Personal Assistance: Attendant Services, Readers, and Interpreters: Topic Paper I. Federal legislation and programs affecting personal assistance services for persons with disabilities are examined. Personal assistance services may be provided for activities of daily living, communication, cognitive tasks, or mobility, depending on the needs of the individual. The population in need of attendant services has increased with advances in medical treatment and emergency services, but precise data on the number of persons are not currently available. Available funding sources include Medicaid, Medicare, Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Veterans Administration programs, Education for All Handicapped Children Act, and others. Issues in the provision of personal assistance services include: definition of certain tasks as medical or nonmedical, eligibility requirements, systems for delivery of services, funding, and the cost of meeting the demand for attendant services. Recommendations call for implementation of a cost-effective process for supporting community-based personal assistant services for persons with severe disabilities, and establishment of a national policy that makes personal services accessible for people with all types of disabilities on the basis of functional need. Descriptors: Attendants, Community Programs, Delivery Systems, Disabilities

Soldo, Beth J. (1980). America's Elderly in the 1980s, Population Bulletin. People aged 65 and over, and particularly the "old old," i.e., 75 and over, are the fastest growing age group in the United States. This group numbers 25 million in 1980, 11% of the population, with women outnumbering men by 5 million. Although a quarter of the federal budget goes to their support, poor coordination among federal programs for the elderly means that only three percent benefit from government housing programs and 33% remain ill-housed. Nearly 25% live near or below the poverty level. The impact of inflation on fixed retirement incomes may discourage early retirement and force many older adults back to work. Although elderly Americans are healthier than ever before, many over age 75 need long-term health care. Financial coverage for home care is extremely limited under current Medicare and Medicaid regulations. Future shifts in policy for the elderly may include increasing the eligible age for retirement benefits, encouraging greater pre-retirement savings, and shoring up the support network of family and friends. Growing problems of the elderly in less developed nations will be the focus of the United Nations World Assembly on the Aging in 1982. Descriptors: Aging (Individuals), Federal Aid, Financial Support, Health Needs

Stambler, Moses (1982). Health Policy Formulation on a Federal Level, Process and Substance. Factors which influence the federal government's policy toward health care include cost, technology, social values, federalism, interest group politics, increased federal involvement, and the current utilitarian attitude toward research. The interaction of these factors results in a complex process of policy formation. For example, when the national government intervenes in health care issues it must consider the conflicting interests: if cigarette smoking is a determinant of health, should the government subsidize tobacco farms? Further, federalism (the sharing of power among different levels of government) creates a disjunction between administrative and regulatory responsibilities. Conflict arises over whether national health insurance should be administered by states or by a centralized federal bureaucracy, or whether health controls should be nationally uniform, tailored to individual characteristics of states. Pressure from interest groups such as medical organizations, the insurance industry, and consumer groups results in incremental rather than comprehensive policy making. Increased federal involvement in physician training and research and through Medicare and Medicaid programs has created a growing demand for policy analysis. Finally, the current attitude toward research as supporting prevailing beliefs rather than providing an informed appraisal of issues creates only partial knowledge, from which policy must be formed. Descriptors: Decision Making, Federal Government, Federal State Relationship, Health Services

National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC. (1986). Disincentives To Work under Social Security Laws: Topic Paper C. As one of a series of topic papers assessing federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities, this paper outlines several ways in which existing Social Security laws serve to discourage and penalize people with disabilities if they seek to become employed and self-supporting. Programs funded under the Social Security Act are described, including Supplemental Security Income (SSI), Medicaid, Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI), and Medicare. The disincentives to work which are found in these programs are then detailed. These disincentives include, among others, the reduction of SSI or SSDI benefits and the loss of income security when a recipient returns to work, and the lack of private health insurance for people with disabilities, forcing them into income support programs. Two case studies demonstrate successful experiences associated with a federal program which allows employed workers with disabilities to continue receiving Medicaid benefits for disability-related expenses. A third case study illustrates the work disincentive that results when a person with disabilities who has vocational potential is automatically eligible for income support payments. Costs and benefits associated with removing the work disincentives in current programs are explored, and recommendations are made to correct provisions of existing Social Security laws. Descriptors: Cost Effectiveness, Disabilities, Disqualification, Eligibility

Porcino, Jane (1985). The Feminization of Poverty for Midlife and Older Women and Its Effects on Their Health. There are 16.4 million women over age 65 in this country, compared to 11 million men. The 41 percent of this population who live alone are the poorest of the poor in this country, with an annual median income of just over $3,000 for white women and little more than $2,000 for black women. This abject poverty affects the ability of these women to receive good medical care and to maintain lifestyles conducive to good health. Medicaid and Medicare costs, and rapidly inflating health care costs deprive many women of needed health care services. The lack of preventive health care services, the lack of long-term care for chronic illness, and the lack of available health care insurance all contribute to the older woman's health care deprivation. Increasing her poverty is her role as caregiver for her chronically ill or disabled spouse, a role which leaves her little economic stability. Several measures can aid the indigent older woman in acquiring needed health care. These include: (1) encouraging Health Maintenance Organizations projects for health care cost reduction; (2) providing incentives to insurance companies for developing long-term care insurance; (3) reuniting federal health care policies; (4) developing specific training programs for health care professionals on the unique issues of women and aging; and (5) sponsoring research on women's major health problems such as osteoporosis, breast cancer, and hormone therapy. Descriptors: Cost Estimates, Economic Factors, Expenditures, Federal Regulation

Siemon, Dorothy; Doherty, Diane M., Ed. (1990). Creative Sources of Funding for Programs for Homeless Families. This monograph was written to inform organizations working with homeless families about some potential sources of funding for their programs and to briefly describe the benefits available to homeless families. The focus throughout is exclusively on services and not on housing. Readers are guided to the major resources available through both the Federal Government and the private sector. Successful fundraising strategies used by homeless providers are discussed and a few creative ideas for special fundraising events are included. Individual sections focus on how to develop a fundraising program; federal funding specifically for the homeless (e.g., The Stewart B. McKinney Act); useful federal programs not targeted for the homeless; private sources of program funds, including foundations, corporations and businesses, religious institutions, and individual donors; and federal programs that provide benefits and services to homeless families (Aid to Families with Dependent Children; Supplementary Security Income; Social Security; Veterans Benefits; Food Stamps; Women, Infants, and Children Program; Medicare; the Job Training Partnership Act; Medicaid; and Headstart). A 2-page annotated bibliography is included; a 28-page annotated address list is appended. Descriptors: Financial Support, Homeless People, Human Services, Individual Needs

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Bibliography: Medicare (page 32 of 37)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the Medicare for All website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Washington Office for Civil Rights (DHEW), IL. Dept. of Nursing. Chicago City Coll, Dennis R. Herschbach, Washington Joint Economic Committee, Amherst. Labor Relations and Research Center. Massachusetts Univ, Washington Comptroller General of the U.S, Ames. Dept. of Education. Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Deb House-Deere, Rockville Health Services Administration (DHEW/PHS), and Washington Congress of the U.S.

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging. (1988). The Chairman's Report on the Black Elderly in America: A Report by the Chairman of the Select Committee on Aging, House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session. This report on the status of Black Americans over 65 years of age is based on nine public forums and hearings held in major cities throughout the country in 1986. More than 100 witnesses testified, including senior citizens, professionals in the field of aging, elected officials, government administrators, and directors of service programs. Findings include the following: (1) older Blacks are the poorest of the poor among the elderly; (2) older Blacks suffer more intense health care problems than other Americans; (3) older Blacks have suffered from recent federal budgetary cuts; (4) older Blacks are more likely to inhabit unsuitable housing; (5) older Blacks are more likely to be the victims of crime; and (6) older Blacks are underrepresented in Older Americans Act and other service programs. Key recommendations include the following: (1) reform the Federal Supplemental Security Income standards; (2) establish a mandatory pension system; (3) resist further attempts to cut Medicare and Medicaid coverage; (4) encourage preventive medicine; (5) enact a universal, comprehensive national health insurance program; (6) develop a more balanced method of reducing the Federal deficit; (7) repeal the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Amendment; (8) provide additional housing units for the elderly; (9) combat crime with preventive techniques; and (10) encourage minority elderly to participate in programs of the Older Americans Act.   [More]  Descriptors: Blacks, Budgeting, Crime Prevention, Federal Legislation

Chicago City Coll., IL. Dept. of Nursing. (1968). A Report of the Fourth Year of Instruction, Associate in Arts Degree Program in Nursing, 1967-1968. These comments on a 3-campus nursing program may be useful to others. The campus of Amundsen-Mayfair, oldest of the three, has served as a demonstration center for other programs in the state, enabling its staff to exchange views with other instructors in both clinical and classroom settings. They have also addressed hospital groups, high school counselors, and practical nurse educators. When local universities used the campus for their practice teaching in nursing (clinic, classroom, conference), the faculty found their own teaching improved. Several hospitals and health agencies have cooperated in providing clinical experience for the students in such varied areas as medical/surgical, obstetrics, pediatrics, psychiatry, intensive care, patient-orientation, chronic illness, and Medicare. Although the faculty still responds to high school requests for talks to recruit students, it no longer seeks them out; applicants, recruited mainly by current students, now exceed accommodations. When other programs are developed or present ones expanded, active recruitment will resume. Enrollment is now limited to 90 qualified beginners. The curriculum, admission standards, campus-to-clinic commuting problems, student characteristics and achievements, and courses are described. With many hospitals dropping their nursing education programs, the colleges must prepare to handle them. A responsible lay advisory committee and extended use of audio-tutorial laboratories are recommended.   [More]  Descriptors: Medical Services, Nurses, Paraprofessional Personnel, Two Year Colleges

Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Education. (1968). Comprehensive Health Manpower Planning: Demonstration of Research-Conference Procedures for Estimating Health Manpower Requirements and in Evaluating Educational and Training Programs for Selected Health Occupations in Non-Metropolitan Areas. Final Report. The purpose of this project was to explore the feasibility of developing a comprehensive system for health manpower planning which would involve educators, leaders in health occupations, state officials, and university research personnel. A long range approach was developed in the form of a theoretical model which considered population trends and composition, price of health service, per capita income and distribution, and health insurance and medicare. Working papers presented to a conference of representatives of health occupations and associations included preliminary employment forecasts and an outline intended to serve as the basis of a system of procedures for assessment of requirements, resources, training, and patterns of labor utilization for the various health occupations. The conference outlined in considerable detail a recommendation for the development of a health manpower data center which would operate in close conjunction with training organizations, research departments, health associations, and health service agencies and at the same time, coordinate its work with state health planning agencies. The recommendation served as a basis for a proposed system of comprehensive health manpower planning.   [More]  Descriptors: Agency Cooperation, Allied Health Occupations Education, Conferences, Coordination

Health Services Administration (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. Indian Health Service. (1978). Progress Report–The Implementation of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act P.L. 94-437. The Indian Health Care Improvement Act authorizes 612 positions and $208,797,000 for fiscal year 1978. Title I augments the inadequate number of health professionals serving Indians, and with such aid as grants and scholarships removes barriers to health professionals' entry into the Indian Health Service (IHS) and private practice for Indians. Title II authorizes resources, funds, and positions to reduce known unmet needs for health services in such program areas as patient care, field health, and alcoholism. Title III funds are used to construct health care facilities and provide safe water and sanitary waste disposal facilities for homes and communities. Title IV provides for use of Medicare and Medicaid entitlements in IHS facilities. Title V encourages establishment of programs to make health services more accessible to urban Indians. Title VI is to study the feasibility of an American Indian School of Medicine, and Title VII covers a miscellany of items, including preparation of the annual report and publication of final rules and regulations. This progress report for fiscal year 1978 breaks down each of the title areas into a description of the title purpose, its major activities in 1978, and tentative plans for 1979.   [More]  Descriptors: Alaska Natives, Alcoholism, American Indians, Federal Legislation

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging. (1986). Investigation on Ways of Minimizing Routine and Catastrophic Health Costs for the Aging. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Retirement Income and Employment of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session (Essex, MD). This document contains witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to investigate ways of minimizing routine and catastrophic health care costs for the elderly. Recent changes in both the costs and quality of health care are examined. Opening statements are included from Congresswoman Helen Delich Bentley and from Congressmen Thomas J. Tauke, Jim Lightfoot, and Ben Blaz. Five panels of witnesses provide testimony. Panel One consists of Sally Folkoff and Mr. Nikaliades, both children of Medicare beneficiaries; Bonnie McLaughlin, Meridian Nursing Home Center; and Colleen Galambos, Stella Maris Hospice. Panel Two consists of three physicians: William Reichel, Jose Martinez, and Ross Pierpont. Panel Three consists of Kevin Moley from the United States Department of Health and Human Services. Panel Four consists of witnesses from the insurance industry, including Howard Richmond, Chief Investigator, Life and Health, Maryland Insurance Division; Joseph La Asmar, Chesapeake Health Plan; and Gary L. Eng, Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Maryland. The Fifth Panel includes Barbara B. Hill, Johns Hopkins Health Plan; Patrick Mattingly, Wyman Park Health Plan; and Catherine Kilmurray, American Association of Retired Persons. Materials submitted for the record are included throughout the text. Descriptors: Aging (Individuals), Financial Problems, Health Insurance, Health Needs

Herschbach, Dennis R.; And Others (1977). Social Security. Cooperative Work Experience Learning Activity Packet: Series on Job Entry and Adjustment; Packet Six. This student booklet is sixth in an illustrated series of eleven learning activity packets for use in teaching job hunting and application procedures and the management of wages to secondary students. Four units are included in this packet to explain (1) the different benefits social security provides and the principles behind the program; (2) the qualifications for full coverage, the four types of benefits (retirement, disability, survivor's, and medicare), and the information needed to file a claim; (3) the kinds of work covered, the sources for the money to pay the benefits, and the names of the funds through which the benefits are paid; and (4) the application procedure for a social security number and how to check on your earnings record. At the beginning of each unit there is a short introduction, then the student objectives are listed, followed by the text section. Suggested learning activities and a Check Your Knowledge quiz conclude the unit. Answers to these quizzes and exercises, as well as final examination ditto masters and answers, are appended as teacher's supplements. As needed, references are made in the text to material in the other booklets.   [More]  Descriptors: Cooperative Education, Employees, Learning Modules, Payroll Records

House-Deere, Deb, Comp. (1994). Iowa Programs Providing and Financing Children's Care and Services. Third Edition. Designed for use by parents and professionals, this guide provides assistance in finding appropriate financial resources and services for children with special needs in Iowa. Divided into six chapters, the guide presents programs related to education, health, human services, insurance, social security, and other support services. After a brief overview of each program, the requirements for eligibility, the services provided, the fees, and information for applying are presented. Chapter 1 provides information about early childhood special education programs and programs for blind and deaf children. Chapter 2 describes programs related to child health specialty clinics, university hospitals, and home care. Chapter 3 includes programs related to child protective services, family support, medical coverage, adoption programs, and transitional child care. Chapter 4 presents a range of insurance plans. Chapter 5 provides information about Medicare, Supplemental Security Income, and State Supplemental Assistance. Chapter 6 outlines a variety of support services such as Developmental Disabilities Basic Grant Program, Easter Seals Society, Iowa Pilot Parents, and Iowa Protection and Advocacy Services. The appendices include lists of agencies related to services for children with special needs, a list of federal poverty guidelines, and guidelines for child care assistance and medically needy income. Information related to child and maternal health issues is also presented.   [More]  Descriptors: Childhood Needs, Community Programs, Early Childhood Education, Eligibility

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance. (1987). Nurse Shortages. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session. The Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Finance of the United States Senate met to examine the U.S. nursing shortage crisis which is adversely affecting the health care of all Americans, but particularly the elderly who consume a disproportionate share of health care services. It was intended to solicit views and recommendations from interested groups on ways to address this crisis, including possible changes in the medicare teaching adjustment to hospitals. Opening statements were heard from Senators George J. Mitchell, David Durenburger, John D. Rockefeller IV, and John H. Chafee. Public witnesses include the following people: Barbara Curtis, American Nurses' Association, Inc.; Jan Towers, American Academy of Nurse Practitioners; Christine Zambricki, Mount Carmel Hospital, Detroit, Michigan; Charles D. Jenkins, Union Memorial Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland; Margaret J. Cushman, the VNA Group, Inc., Waterbury/Hartford, Connecticut; Paul R. Willging, American Health Care Association; Nancy P. Greenleaf, University of Southern Maine, School of Nursing; and Nelville E. Strumpf, Gerontological Nurse Clinician Program, University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Legislation, Federal Legislation, Health Personnel, Health Services

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC. (1984). Health Care Costs and Their Effects on the Economy. Hearings before the Joint Economic Committee. Congress of the United States, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (April 12 and August 29, 1984). The first of two hearings on the topic of health care costs, their effects on the economy, and ways to curb costs was held in Washington, D.C. Testimony was heard from representatives of Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, American Farm Bureau Federation, Washington Business Group on Health, American Association of Retired Persons, American Hospital Association, American Medical Association, National Association for Home Care, and Health Insurance Association of America. Each panelist described the effects of rising health care costs on his or her organization or its members. Issues included shifting costs from one group to another while actual health care costs increase; prospective payment systems and hospital rate review commissions to curtail hospital costs; federal tax reductions for health insurance premiums; the possibility of health care rationing; a possible national commission on health care costs; Medicare and Medicaid reimbursement for home care expenses; preferred provider organizations; and health maintenance organizations. The second hearing was held in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Testimony was heard from 23 individuals and organizations; four panels represented the perspectives of consumers, health care providers, funding sources, and organizations involved in future planning. While many of the issues addressed were the same as in the first hearing, new topics included rural hospital cooperatives, the revision of business insurance plans, and company-provided preventive health care for employees.   [More]  Descriptors: Business, Cooperation, Costs, Economically Disadvantaged

ASH, LANE; AND OTHERS (1966). NEW FIELDS OF EMPLOYMENT AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR OLDER WORKERS. PANEL AND WORKSHOP V. OPPORTUNITIES FOR TRAINING OLDER ADULTS IN NEW OCCUPATIONS HAVE BEEN MADE POSSIBLE BY RECENT FEDERAL LEGISLATION. UNDER THE SPONSORSHIP OF THE UNIVERSITY OF OKLAHOMA, PROGRAMS WERE STARTED IN 20 RURAL COMMUNITIES TO TRAIN OLDER WOMEN AS VISITING HOMEMAKERS. LOCAL AGENCIES ORGANIZED THE COURSE AND RECRUITED THE TRAINEES, THE HOME ECONOMICS AGENT TAUGHT THE CLASSES, AND CERTIFICATES WERE AWARDED. TWENTY-ONE PERCENT WERE HIRED BY FAMILIES OR IN NURSING HOMES. THE STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE OF CALIFORNIA ABOLISHED THE CONCEPT OF JOB QUALIFICATIONS IN RELATION TO AGE AND CREATED NEW JOBS, SUCH AS FAMILY AIDES, SENIOR HOME REPAIRERS, AND CUSTODIANS. UNDER CONTRACT WITH THE OFFICE OF ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY, THE NATIONAL COUNCIL ON THE AGING SET UP FOUR MODEL PROGRAMS, CONCENTRATING ON THE CREATION OF NEW JOBS IN COMMUNITY ACTION PROGRAMS–SUBPROFESSIONALS IN COMMUNITY SERVICES, FOSTER GRANDPARENTS, AND CONTACT PERSONS IN OPERATION MEDICARE ALERT (NOW FUNDED AS A NATIONAL PROGRAM). THESE NEW KINDS OF EMPLOYMENT SHOULD BE INSTITUTIONALIZED WITH GUARANTEES OF YEAR-ROUND EMPLOYMENT, A GOOD WAGE, AND SOCIAL SECURITY COVERAGE. THESE PAPERS WERE PRESENTED AT THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MANPOWER TRAINING AND THE OLDER WORKER, WASHINGTON, JANUARY 17-19, 1966.   [More]  Descriptors: Community Action, Community Health Services, Community Programs, Employment Opportunities

Office for Civil Rights (DHEW), Washington, DC. (1974). Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964–Ten Years Later. An Anniversary Progress Report, July 1974. This report reflects not only the Department of Health, Education and Welfare's accomplishments in civil rights since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, but also describes the areas encompassed by HEW's current and future civil rights activities. From the early and primary emphasis on school desegregation in the southern and border States, the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) has expanded its program to treat many of the special kinds of discrimination suffered by national origin minorities and women. It is the responsibility of OCR to ensure that HEW-assisted activities are conducted and services are provided without discrimination because of race, color, religion, national origin or sex. OCR turned its attention to hospital and extended care facilities, for example, with the advent of Medicare in 1966. For the most part, such facilities were desegregated by 1967. While desegregation of public school districts has attracted more attention, OCR has also been seeking to eliminate the dual system of higher education, vestiges of which still exist in many southern states. In early 1974 OCR was given enforcement responsibility for Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which prohibits discrimination against physically or mentally handicapped individuals in Federally assisted programs.   [More]  Descriptors: Civil Rights, College Desegregation, Equal Protection, Federal Aid

1978 (1978). 1978 Annual Report – Appalachian Regional Commission. Narrative text, tables, maps, and photographs present an overview of the Appalachian Regional Commission's (ARC) activities in fiscal year 1978, their past achievements, and goals for the future. The report discusses major accomplishments of 1978: nearly 56% (1700 miles) of the Appalachian Development Highways System was completed or under construction, 102 water and sewer projects were approved helping to alleviate a major public facility need, $6 million was approved for housing programs in nine states, 259 primary health care clinics were certified for reimbursement under Medicare and Medicaid, 88 vocational education projects were funded, 52 of the 69 local development districts were using the areawide action program thereby coordinating their districts' planning and development activities. Separate chapters summarize projects in the areas of transportation; community development and housing; enterprise development; energy, environment, and natural resources; and human development (health, education, and child development). The role of multicounty planning agencies, the involvement of local citizens, and the planning and research activities of the ARC are outlined. Appendices contain total project funds approved in fiscal year 1978 for each of the 13 Appalachian states and a directory of local planning districts.   [More]  Descriptors: Annual Reports, Child Development, Clinics, Community Development

Massachusetts Univ., Amherst. Labor Relations and Research Center. (1970). Planning for Retirement: How to Prepare and Present a Pre-Retirement Program. The history of the labor unions has been a history of men helping their fellows. Preretirement counseling and guidance is clearly an area where the labor unions could continue their heritage of collective self-help. The retiree faces new problems in Social Security and Medicare, health and nutrition, financial and legal adjustments, time and leisure, a host of consumer problems, housing, and taxes, in addition to making ends meet. The initial impetus for the development of a preretirement program may come from any source: union officials, union members, company officials, community agencies, those recently retired, or even an outside agency. The first step is the formation of a special committee to develop a preretirement program. The committee performs a number of functions: (1) recruitment of the persons expecting to retire in the next five years, (2) selection of a meeting place, (3) planning for subject matter and locating resource persons. Suggestions for recruiting students and running programs and a program outline are provided.   [More]  Descriptors: Community Resources, Older Adults, Planning, Program Content

Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC. (1988). Health and Human Services Issues. Transition Series. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) should take actions in four critical areas in order to serve the millions dependent on it for benefit payments and services. First, HHS should improve departmental management by investing in department-wide planning, its personnel, and its financial and information management. HHS can eliminate role confusion among its senior executives by restructuring the role of the Chief of Staff. Second, HHS must continue to pursue the cost-containment goal. Positive steps include refining Medicare's hospital prospective payment system and improving controls over payments for physician and related services. The Secretary of HHS must also develop a strategy for addressing the long-term care problem. Third, HHS needs to enhance the financing and delivery of Social Security benefits. The Secretary should take special care to preserve the security of its financing, continue efforts to enhance public confidence in the program, and ensure that the Social Security Administration delivers high-quality service to the public. Fourth, the Secretary must provide strong leadership to implement welfare reform. HHS should reorient the country's view of welfare's role and strengthen programs to promote parental responsibility.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Cost Effectiveness, Delivery Systems, Departments

Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC. (1974). Studies in Public Welfare, Paper Number 17: National Survey of Food Stamp and Food Distribution Program Recipients: A Summary of Findings on Income Sources and Amounts and Incidence of Multiple Benefits. This report presents the findings of a national survey of food stamp program and food distribution program recipients. Specifically, this study provides information on the amounts of earned income, income from other private sources, and major cash and in-kind benefits that food stamp or food distribution program recipients receive from other Federal programs. Included are social security, unemployment insurance, veterans' benefits, public assistance (aid to families with dependent children and to the aged, blind, and disabled, and general assistance), subsidized housing, medicare, medicaid, and child nutrition programs. Cash income equivalents of in-kind benefits were imputed by type of benefit on the basis of per-beneficiary cost to the Federal Government nationwide. Also presented are participants' race, residence, household characteristics, sex-age composition, and employment status. For each of the two programs, an independent sample of 3,600 households was selected by a two-stage random sampling method. Data were collected in January and February 1974, but the respondents were asked for information related to November 1973. Personal interviews were completed in 2,191 food stamp households and 2,364 food distribution households. For reasons of uniqueness, the Puerto Rican food distribution sample households are tabulated from the U.S. samples and are not discussed in this report. Descriptors: Cost Effectiveness, Demography, Family Characteristics, Family Financial Resources

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Bibliography: Medicare (page 31 of 37)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Medicare for All website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Washington Congress of the U.S, Gary A. Goreham, Washington Gerontological Society, Richard W. Rathge, Washington White House Conference on Aging, Judith A. Hollinger, New York General Accounting Office, Washington Veterans Administration, Bruce D. Beck, and Edward J. Welniak.

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging. (1986). Home Health Care: Present and Future Options. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Services of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session (September 30, 1985, New York, NY). Text of a Congressional hearing examining present and future policies on providing home health care for the aged is presented in this document. In his opening remarks, Representative Biaggi discusses the unhealthy and unacceptable reliance on institutional care and the disproportionate amount of resources Medicare and Medicaid spend on nursing home services. Representative Manton also testifies. Expert testimony is provided by these witnesses: (1) Barry Freedman, senior vice president, Mount Sinai Medical Center; (2) Andrew Stein, borough president of Manhattan; (3) Robert N. Butler, Brookdale Professor of Geriatrics and Adult Development and chairman, Gerald and May Ellen Ritter, Department of Geriatrics and Adult Development, Mount Sinai Medical Center; (4) Roberta R. Spohn, deputy commissioner, New York City Department for the Aging; (5) Robert O'Connell, deputy director, program development and evaluation, New York State Office for the Aging; (6) Mary Lou Carraher, Visiting Nurse Association of New York; (7) Charles Trent, executive director, East Harlem Committee on Aging, New York City; (8) Betsy Tuft, assistant director, Project LIFE; (9) three of Project LIFE's clients; and (10) Joan Marren, director of home care, Mount Sinai Hospital.   [More]  Descriptors: Deinstitutionalization (of Disabled), Federal Legislation, Health Programs, Health Services

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging. (1986). Protecting America's Aged, Children, and Poor. Multi-Generational Needs; Multi-Generational Solutions. A Public Forum Presented by the Chairman of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, in Conjunction with the Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association. This document contains materials from a Congressional public forum which focused on multigenerational approaches to the health and economic problems of Americans. Introductory remarks are included from Fernando Torres-Gil, staff director of the House Select Committee on Aging; Victor Sidel, president of the American Public Health Association (APHA); and Pearl German, chairwoman of the APHA Gerontological Health Section. Anne Brushwood describes her experience of working to support her family while being the primary caregiver for three ailing relatives, and suggests ways of lessening the burden of care for families. Rosalie Kane, a University of Minnesota professor, discusses the interdependency of the aged and their families; the difficulties faced by families caring for a dependent elder; the impact of Medicare and Medicaid policies on the aged and their families; and priorities for reform. Jacob Clayman, chairman of the Leadership Council of Aging Organizations and president of the National Council of Senior Citizens describes how the health and financial needs of all Americans are interlocked and how actual budget cuts and those proposed under the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Amendment jeopardize health programs for the young, the old, and the poor. A committee analysis of the impact of the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Amendment on programs for the aged, children, and poor, and a report on multi-generational equity being prepared by the Gerontological Society of America are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Budgeting, Children, Disadvantaged, Family Problems

Veterans Administration, Washington, DC. Office of Information Management and Statistics. (1983). Survey of Aging Veterans: A Study of the Means, Resources and Future Expectations of Veterans Aged 55 and Over. A national survey of the needs, resources, and future expectations of veterans aged 55 and over produced findings that the Veterans Administration (VA) will use over the next decade to plan facilities and programs to meet those needs. Findings indicated veterans had a higher educational level and were less likely to be at the lower end of the occupational scale than non-veterans of the same age. Retired veterans were substantially better off. Three-fourths had savings accounts, 42 percent had other investments, and nearly 9 out of 10 owned their own home. Although the majority described their health as excellent or good compared to others their own age, nearly half reported that their health limited their activities. Certain types of chronic diseases, including arthritis and hypertension, were widespread. While four of five veterans had group or private health insurance, Medicare formed the cornerstone of the aging veterans' health coverage. The survey identified, however, the existence of a medically indigent group of veterans. Most veterans did not believe they would be able to absorb the cost of future long-term care needs. An important finding was that current utilization rates of VA hospitals by aging veterans may drastically underrepresent the true demand. (Numerous data tables are provided. The questionnaire is appended.)   [More]  Descriptors: Attitudes, Demography, Early Retirement, Economic Status

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging. (1985). Cataract Surgery: Fraud, Waste, and Abuse. A Report by the Chairman of the Subcommittee on Health and Long-Term Care of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session. This report is a summary of the findings from the Subcommittee on Health and Long-Term Care of the United States House of Representatives Select Committee on Aging investigation of cataract surgery and the use of intraocular lenses (IOL's) in the United States. The document provides background on the definition and treatment of cataracts and describes IOL implantation procedures, the IOL industry in the United States and abroad, and IOL utilization, including numbers and costs. Medicare payment for cataract surgery is also examined. Current problems are detailed, including efficacy and safety; cost; kickbacks, discounts, and rebates; and no cost advertisements. Results from surveys of ophthalmologists and the IOL industry regarding their experiences with fraud, waste, and abuse in the area of cataract surgery are analyzed and a conversation with an IOL salesman is reported. Current regulatory activity involving IOL enforcement, approval, and reimbursement is detailed. Policy recommendations, based on the findings, are listed and supported by the conclusion that cataract surgery is fraught with fraud, waste, and abuse but can still be provided with some improvements in program administration and legislative changes. A glossary of terms specific to the cataract industry and an anatomy of the eye are included. Several appendices present surveys of ophthamologists and the IOL industry, information supplied by the Food and Drug Administration and the Health Care Financing Administration, and marketing materials of the IOL industry.   [More]  Descriptors: Accountability, Cost Effectiveness, Eyes, Federal Programs

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging. (1987). Catastrophic Health Insurance: A New Jersey Perspective. Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (Elizabeth, New Jersey, April 10, 1987). This document presents the text of the Congressional hearing held in Elizabeth, New Jersey to examine the need for catastrophic health care coverage for the elderly and what role the Federal Government can play in helping to address that need. Opening statements are included from Representatives Matthew Rinaldo, Marge Roukema, and Jim Saxton. In his opening remarks, Representative Rinaldo briefly reviews U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Secretary Otis Bowen's report to President Reagan which recommends extending Medicare coverage to an unlimited number of hospital days, capping out-of-pocket expenses at $2,000 for covered services, and covering the first 100 days of post-hospital skilled nursing facility care. Alternative approaches to catastrophic health insurance which have been introduced in Congress are also described. Witnesses providing testimony include: (1) Thomas Dunn, mayor of Elizabeth, New Jersey; (2) William Hargwood (Monmouth, New Jersey), who describes his difficulties in caring for his wife, a victim of Alzheimer's disease; (3) Thomas Burke, chief of staff, DHHS, who elaborates on the Bowen proposal for catastrophic health care coverage; (4) Thomas Brown, vice-president of Overlook Hospital (Summit, New Jersey); (5) Evelyn Savage, director of Somerset Hills Visiting Nurses Association (Barnardsville, New Jersey); and (6) William Matusz, director of American Association of Retired Persons Operations, Prudential Insurance Company, Inc. (Montgomeryville, Pennsylvania). Relevant materials are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Federal Legislation, Financial Support, Government Role, Health Care Costs

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. (1985). Long-Term Care for the Indian Elderly. Oversight Hearing before the Select Committe on Aging and the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (Tucson, Arizona, May 25, 1984). The joint committees met to examine the long-term care problems faced by the Indian elderly and to consider various proposals to resolve those problems. Four expert panels and 10 government and tribal representatives presented testimony on the health problems of the Indian elderly. One expert panel consisted of representatives of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Indian Health Service, the Health Care Financing Administration, and the Administration on Aging. The remaining three panels consisted of tribal representatives including Navajo, Pueblo, Apache, Oglala Sioux, Yakima, Cheyenne River Sioux, and Omaha. Testimony touched on funding, federal responsibility for long-term health care, coordination of agency services, Medicare/Medicaid programs, nursing home policy, and specific provisions of the Older American Act. The bulk of this document consists of material submitted for the hearing record. In addition to prepared statements by panel members, materials include reports submitted by southwest tribes, the New Mexico Title VI Indian Coalition, the New Mexico Indian Council on Aging, the Inter-Tribal Council of Arizona, and Senator deConcini of Arizona. The Long-Term Care Gerontology Center of the University of Arizona submitted two papers concerned with American Indian nursing homes.   [More]  Descriptors: Aging (Individuals), American Indian Reservations, American Indians, Federal Aid

Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. (1986). Recommendations: Health Professions Education. A Report to the Southern Regional Education Board by Its Commission on Health and Human Services. Problems facing health professions schools and academic health centers that can damage health were identified by the Southern Regional Education Board, along with recommendations for action within the states. Nine problems for these schools and centers concern: declining applications and enrollments for dental schools and many schools of pharmacy, nursing, and allied health programs; declining enrollment of minority and disadvantaged students as a result of rising tuitions and loan reductions; certain professions are pressing for higher academic levels of education; young practitioners continue to choose the more lucrative specialties in medicine; teaching hospitals are losing both paying patients and staffs to more competitive community hospitals; teaching hospitals are expected to provide more indigent care; teaching hospitals may lose a portion of their teaching cost revenues from Medicare and from patients whose hospital bills are paid by business/industry; health professions curricula are oriented to younger patients rather than the elderly; and curricula emphasize illness rather than prevention. To respond to these problems, 23 recommendations are offered to state officials, boards of higher education, licensure boards, health planners and program managers, and leaders in academic health centers and professional schools.   [More]  Descriptors: Allied Health Occupations Education, Change Strategies, Competition, Costs

Gerontological Society, Washington, DC. (1981). [White House Conference on Aging, 1981. Papers Prepared by the Gerontological Society of America.]. This document contains eight papers presented at the 1981 White House Conference on Aging. Each paper begins with a statement of a Congressional finding relevant to the topic under consideration, followed by a presentation and discussion of important issues related to each topic. The first paper, "Research on the Aging Process," explores the scope of research on aging and considers biomedical, behavioral, and social science research. The paper on health care investigates shortcomings in Medicare coverage, mental health needs, and the delivery of health care services to older people. An examination of housing and housing services for older people discusses owner-occupied housing, rental housing, and the need for coordination of community resources. A social services report focuses on the Older Americans Act and the delivery of services to older people. A paper on long-term care considers the continuum of care needed by chronically ill older people and discusses both institutionalization and home-care alternatives. Employment opportunities for older people and the ramifications of a national retirement policy are also reviewed. The final paper focuses on the elimination of negative stereotypes toward aging and older people.   [More]  Descriptors: Aging (Individuals), Employment Opportunities, Health, Housing

Hollinger, Judith A. (1984). Guia Legal para Ciudadanos Envejeciente: Leyes y Programas Afectando los Ciudadanos Envejeciente de Kansas. (Legal Guide for Senior Citizens: Laws and Programs Affecting Kansas Senior Citizens). This booklet, translated into Spanish, is intended to inform (not advise) older Kansans about eligibility requirements and benefits provided by state and federal programs. Financial assistance programs discussed are Social Security, railroad retirements, veterans' benefits, unrestricted general assistance, Employee Retirement Income Security Act, food stamps, Low Income Energy Assistance, and weatherization. Health care programs outlined include Medicare, Medicaid, veterans' benefits, private insurance, Hill-Burton funds, and senior dental care. Housing information is provided about renting, public and private subsidized housing, homesharing, Continuing Care Retirement Community, extended family, nursing homes, alternatives to nursing home placement, and multi-purpose senior centers. Tax relief programs described are food sales tax refunds, homestead tax refunds, intangibles tax exemption, and federal tax benefits, credits, and refunds. Consumer topics addressed are deceptive and unconscionable practices, contracts, mail solicitation, warranty laws, funeral plans, utility users' rights, and consumer protection agencies. Rights are summarized regarding age discrimination, grandparents' rights, small claims, living wills, protective services, power of attorney, guardianship, and conservatorship. Estate planning information covers probate, wills, estate and inheritance taxes, trusts, payable on death accounts, and real estate transfers. Guidelines for seeking legal assistance are given. Relevant maps, agency addresses and telephone numbers, and checklists for evaluating nursing homes are appended. Descriptors: Civil Rights, Consumer Protection, Eligibility, Estate Planning

General Accounting Office, New York, NY. Regional Office. (1986). Health Facilities: New York State's Oversight of Nursing Homes and Hospitals. Report to the Honorable Bill Green, House of Representatives. At the request of Congressman William Green, the General Accounting Office (GAO) evaluated the validity of allegations about deficiencies in the New York State Department of Health's nursing home and hospital inspection processes for certification for participation in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. Health Care Financing Administration and state policies, procedures, and practices for investigating complaints, performing inspections, and determining nursing home and hospital compliance with federal standards were evaluated. It had been alleged that: (1) the validity of the nursing home inspection process was compromised because facilities received advance notice of inspections; (2) inspection reports were being weakened by supervisors; (3) the state was not investigating patient complaints in a timely manner; (4) the state was not sharing information on patient complaints with the federal government; (5) the state was lax in instituting enforcement action against facilities with deficiencies; and (6) inspection and enforcement actions were biased in favor of certain facilities. The GAO investigation did not substantiate the allegations. Problems identified in the investigation were discussed with the state and actions have been taken to correct the problems.   [More]  Descriptors: Certification, Evaluation Criteria, Federal State Relationship, Hospitals

Goreham, Gary A.; Rathge, Richard W. (1986). Projected Prevalence of Alzheimer's Disease among North Dakota's Elderly. Report Series No. 8. This report on Alzheimer's disease in North Dakota discusses the heightened awareness of the disease and the shift in the age structure as two possible reasons for the increase in recognized incidences of the disease. It explains the three epidemiological indices commonly used to describe a population in the study of dementing illnesses: mortality, prevalence, and incidence. National prevalence rates of senile dementia and Alzheimer's disease are presented and reasons for variations in the prevalence rates are cited, including methodological techniques, a lack of diagnostic specificity, differences in disease severity, and the sampling procedures used. The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in North Dakota is then described. Methods used to project the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in North Dakota residents aged 60 years and older for the period 1980 through 2000 are discussed. Medicare and Medicaid data obtained from hospital admissions records are presented which substantiate the trends suggested by the projections in the report: Alzheimer's disease is related to age, its connection with gender is unclear, and places with larger populations will have higher numbers of Alzheimer's disease patients. Implications of the report are discussed in the areas of the care of Alzheimer's disease patients, the public understanding of Alzheimer's disease, and the need for further research. Fourteen data tables are appended. Five pages of references are included.   [More]  Descriptors: Disease Incidence, Futures (of Society), Mental Disorders, Mental Health

White House Conference on Aging, Washington, DC. (1981). [White House Conference on Aging, 1981. Information Briefs #1 – 22.]. This document contains 22 information briefs from the 1981 White House Conference on Aging. Four of the briefs provide data on health, available services, income, and employment from a report comparing the well-being of older people in three rural and urban locations. National estimates are provided about the need for meals for older people, and about the number of older people at the poverty level. The housing situation of older adults is examined in one brief and is followed by a report on congregate housing. Services and care needs of the elderly and the cost of such services are discussed in nine briefs dealing with: (1) preventive care; (2) the comparative costs of home services and institutionalization; (3) the cost impact of possible changes to Medicaid and Medicare; (4) total national expenditure for nursing home care; (5) provision of services; (6) older adults' consumption of health resources; and (7) home care services for older people. Other briefs discuss the nutritional health status of older people, the need for a national information system on the conditions of older people, disability problems of men, and crime and the elderly.   [More]  Descriptors: Aging (Individuals), Crime, Employment, Federal Aid

Hollinger, Judith A., Ed. (1984). Legal Guide for Senior Citizens: Laws and Programs Affecting Kansas Senior Citizens. This booklet is intended to inform (not advise) older Kansans about eligibility requirements and benefits provided by state and federal programs. Financial assistance programs discussed are Social Security, railroad retirements, veterans' benefits, unrestricted general assistance, Employee Retirement Income Security Act, food stamps, Low Income Energy Assistance, and weatherization. Health care programs outlined include Medicare, Medicaid, veterans' benefits, private insurance, Hill-Burton funds, and senior dental care. Housing information is provided about renting, public and private subsidized housing, homesharing, Continuing Care Retirement Community, extended family, nursing homes, alternatives to nursing home placement, and multi-purpose senior centers. Tax relief programs described are food sales tax refunds, homestead tax refunds, intangibles tax exemption, and federal tax benefits, credits, and refunds. Consumer topics addressed are deceptive and unconscionable practices, contracts, mail solicitation, warranty laws, funeral plans, utility users' rights, and consumer protection agencies. Rights are summarized regarding age discrimination, grandparents' rights, small claims, living wills, protective services, power of attorney, guardianship, and conservatorship. Estate planning information covers probate, wills, estate and inheritance taxes, trusts, payable on death accounts, and real estate transfers. Guidelines for seeking legal assistance are given. Relevant maps, agency addresses and telephone numbers, and checklists for evaluating a nursing home are appended. Descriptors: Civil Rights, Consumer Protection, Eligibility, Estate Planning

Welniak, Edward J. (1985). Characteristics of Households and Persons Receiving Selected Noncash Benefits: 1984, Current Population Report. This document is a report of statistical data on the characteristics of households and individuals receiving noncash benefits in 1984. The data were obtained from the March 1985 Current Population Survey (CPS) conducted by the Bureau of the Census. The report covers data on: The Food Stamp Program; the National School Lunch Program; public and other subsidized rental housing; Medicare health insurance; Medicaid health insurance; CHAMPUS, VA, or military health insurance; and employer or union provided pension plans and group health insurance plans. There are two types of recipients for these noncash benefits: means-tested (those whose household income falls below a specified level) and non means-tested. In 1984, 88% of the households in the United States received at least one noncash benefit, an increase from 1983 of approximately 972,000 households. Households receiving at least one means-tested benefit did not change significantly from 1983 to 1984, but those households receiving nonmeans-tested benefits increased from 69.8 million to 70.7 million from 1983 to 1984. The body of this report consists of tables showing the collected data. Also included are extensive appendices which include information on : (1) definitions of terms and demographics; (2) sources and reliability of estimates; (3) underreporting; and (4) facsimiles of the 1985 CPS questionnaires.   [More]  Descriptors: Eligibility, Family Characteristics, Federal Aid, Federal Programs

Beck, Bruce D. (1979). Can You Afford to Work? A Handbook on Social Security Benefits. This handbook is designed to help disabled individuals determine the effects of a given employment opportunity on Social Security Benefits. Because of the complexity of the material, it is intended not for the consumer, but for the social workers, counselors, and developmental disabilities coordinators as a reference source for work with people with developmental disabilities. In addition to overviewing the handbook, an introduction discusses the four major programs under the Social Security Act that provide benefits for disabled or handicapped individuals–two social insurance programs (Social Security Disability Insurance and Medicare) and two income assistance programs (Supplemental Security Income and Medical Assistance). Part 1 discusses how earnings can affect categorical eligibility for disability benefits under the Social Security Act. These activities/conditions that can aversely affect eligibility are considered: medical recovery, substantial gainful activity, trial work period, unsuccessful work attempt, rehabilitation and treatment, and sheltered workshop earnings. Part 2 explains how to assess the value of one's eligibility. Benefits from each of the four programs are described separately. Part 3 explains how to assess the value of a specific offer or work. Taxes and health insurance are also discussed. Descriptors: Adults, Cost Effectiveness, Developmental Disabilities, Disqualification

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Bibliography: Medicare (page 30 of 37)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Medicare for All website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Washington Comptroller General of the U.S, Washington Congress of the U.S, Inc. Applied Management Sciences, Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, Edward O'Leary, Susan Trotter, Charles R. Feild, William P. O'Hare, Kenneth E. Paprock, and John D. Grad.

Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (1997). Ten Public Policy Issues for Higher Education in 1997 and 1998. AGB Public Policy Paper Series, No. 97-1. This paper is the fourth in a series of yearly efforts to identify the top 10 public-policy issues facing higher education. Each of the issues is discussed in terms of likely developments in 1997-98, the issue's various aspects, and sources of further information. Issues identified are: (1) the Higher Education Act Reauthorization (issues relating to the federal role in making college more affordable and accessible); (2) federal budget constraints (the commitment to balance the budget jeopardizes all programs including student aid and campus-based research); (3) various federal tax proposals affecting higher education; (4) innovative state financing (demographic trends and slower growth of state funding); (6) health-care system changes (reforms to the Medicare program will affect most colleges and universities); (7) fair use under copyright law (institutional fair-use policies face rigid guidelines that impinge on important educational needs); (8) job training (Congress is expected to look at every piece of legislation that affects job training and employment); (9) the quality of teaching and learning (concerns about teaching and learning will lead to review and modification of conditions of employment and training for teachers); and (10) the virtual university (many issues relating to the governance and financing of technology-based virtual universities must be resolved). Descriptors: Access to Education, Affirmative Action, Copyrights, Economic Development

Feild, Charles R.; And Others (1991). Rural Special Education and Medicaid: Meeting A Challenge for the 1990s. This article reviews the development of Medicaid (MA) reimbursement for medically related special education (SE) services and describes a MA assistance project for schools in Arkansas. The 1988 Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act (Public Law 100-360) allowed medically related special education services to be covered by MA. However, schools have been slow to participate in the MA program for SE. The University of Arkansas Department of Pediatrics developed an MA program for public schools. The Medical College Physicians Groups (the faculty practice billing system) files claims on behalf of schools districts using MA provider numbers assigned to each school district. Electronic data transfer between the billing system and the MA claims processor allows rapid reimbursement of schools. A fee is charged to cover costs based on a percentage of the amount billed. During the first year of the project (1989-1990), 23 of the 325 Arkansas school districts participated in the project. The project billed for 297 students yielding $76,161 in reimbursements, 83 percent of the claimed amount. The mean claim per year per student of the project schools is $256, lower than a statewide average reimbursement of $1,133 per MA eligible schoolchild. Improved coordination between Medicaid and special education programs addresses problems in funding relating services. It is anticipated that related services funded by MA will expand to include psychometric testing, counseling services, skilled nursing care, and other services.   [More]  Descriptors: Coordination, Costs, Elementary Secondary Education, Individualized Education Programs

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance. (1997). Graduate Medical Education (GME). Hearing Before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate. One Hundred Fifth Congress. First Session (March 12, 1997). This hearing presents testimony on Medicare support for graduate medical education in light of Clinton Administration and other reform proposals to reduce the number of specialized residencies in teaching hospitals. The testimony includes opening statements by Senator William V. Roth, Jr., chair of the Senate Committee on Finance, and Senator Phil Gramm. Bruce Vladeck, administrator of the Health Care Financing Administration offered a statement as administration witness. Statements by public witnesses included those of: Robert Crittenden of the University of Washington School of Medicine; Don E. Detmer, on behalf of the Association of Academic Health Centers; Spencer Foreman, on behalf of the Greater New York Hospital Association of Academic Health; and Ralph W. Muller, on behalf of the Association of American Medical Colleges. Appended are prepared statements by the witnesses and communications regarding graduate medical education reform from the Alaska Family Practice Residency, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, American Association of Dental Schools, American College of Preventive Medicine, American Hospital Association, National Association of Children's Hospitals, National Association of Public Hospitals and Health Systems, and National League for Nursing.   [More]  Descriptors: Advocacy, Educational Attitudes, Educational Policy, Federal Aid

Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC. (1995). [High Risk Federal Program Areas]: An Overview. High-Risk Series. This report reviews the status of government agencies and operations that have been identified as at "high risk" for waste, fraud, abuse, and mismanagement; describes successful progress in some agencies; and looks at recent reform legislation. Six categories being targeted include accountability of defense programs, ensuring that all revenues are collected and accounted for, obtaining an adequate return on investments in information technology, controlling Medicare claims fraud and abuse, minimizing loan program losses, and improving management of federal contracts. In the area of loan program losses, the guaranteed student loan program cost $2.4 billion in losses in fiscal year 1994. The Department of Education is addressing some of the program's weaknesses by transferring some risks and financial costs to lenders and guaranty agencies, and is phasing out the guaranteed loan program and replacing it with a direct loan program. However, loan data continue to be unreliable, and a viable strategy is needed to prevent unscrupulous schools from participating in the new direct loan program. Five programs have made enough progress to have their high-risk designation removed. Legislative changes are moving toward a smaller, more efficient government that focuses on accountability and managing for results, such as the Government Performance and Results Act and the Chief Financial Officers Act.   [More]  Descriptors: Federal Legislation, Federal Regulation, Finance Reform, Higher Education

Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD. (1980). The Area Resource File (ARF). A Health Professions Planning and Research Tool. This report presents a description and sample products of the Area Resource File (ARF), a computer-based county-specific health resources information system which consolidates U.S. data on the health professions, hospital and nursing home facilities, hospital utilization levels, health professions training, hospital expenditures, Medicare expenditures, and selected population, economic, and environmental characteristics. The report briefly discusses the development of ARF, its data organization and content, ARF products for sale, the analytical capabilities available to the ARF user, and current and future ARF expansion. Information on ordering ARF printed and computer tape products and a sample order form are also provided. Appendices, constituting the major portion of the report, include: (1) samples of basic area profiles for the United States, Maryland, Maryland's Montgomery County, and the Southern Maryland Health Systems Agency (HSA); (2) sample ranking profiles for Maryland and the Southern Maryland HSA; (3) ARF technical documentation describing the master tape as of September 1980; (4) ARF user documentation current as of the same date; (5) a list of ARF data elements added and deleted from September 1979 to September 1980; (6) examples of tables and graphics produced with ARF; and (7) a list of future data elements to be added to the file.   [More]  Descriptors: Databases, Dental Schools, Expenditures, Federal Programs

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance. (1988). Children's Health Care Issues. Hearing before the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session. A hearing was convened to investigate health care issues affecting children. Witnesses provided information about the way in which the health care system meets the needs of children in the United States. Components of the system include Medicaid for low-income children, the Maternal and Child Health block grant program, employer-sponsored health insurance, and Medicare for a small number of children with end-stage kidney disease. Testimony concerned Medicaid's adequacy, enrollment barriers, needed improvements, and recommended expansions; private insurance and insurers' case management procedures for children with severe and chronic health problems; prenatal care; the need for legislation to decrease infant mortality and expand coverage to poor, uninsured infants and pregnant women; health care policy and programs in several states; prevalence of chronic illness; use of health care by disabled children; paying for health care costs; Blue Cross and Blue Shield coverage and benefits; policy and program directives to specialized populations needing health care; the cost-effectiveness of expanded access to prenatal care for poor women; improved access to primary care and effective well-child care for young children; problems in financing and delivering health services for technology-dependent children; and child health activities of the Department of Health and Human Services, the Indian Health Service, and the Alcohol, Drug Abuse and Mental Health Administration. An extensive Congressional Research Service report on federal programs and policies on health care for children is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Children, Federal Government, Government Role, Health Needs

O'Leary, Edward, Ed.; Trotter, Susan, Ed. (1990). Planning for the Future of Your Child with a Disabliity. Second Edition. The handbook provides parents of children with disabilities guidance on planning for the child's future needs with special attention to resources and laws of Iowa. Section 1 gives a Future Planning Checklist and definitions of common legal terms. Section 2 addresses estates, trusts, and wills and provides common estate planning questions and answers, a family estate planning inventory, and a sample of a simple will. Section 3 covers guardianship and conservatorship including new Iowa legislation. Section 4 examines health care coverage and financing and includes: the major types of health care coverage; recommended pediatric benefits; Medicaid and Medicare; Iowa Comprehensive Health Association; Association for Retarded Citizens insurance programs; the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment Program; and a glossary of health insurance terms. Considered in section 5 are residential and community based services such as residential and intermediate care facilities, group foster care, respite care, the Family Support Subsidy Program, and camps. Supplemental income is examined next including Supplemental Security Income and Medicaid, federal payments and redetermination, and change of status. Tax information is given in section 7 and additional information, such as sources of free or low cost help in Iowa, in section 8. Includes 50 resources and references.   [More]  Descriptors: Check Lists, Community Services, Disabilities, Estate Planning

Parette, Howard P., Jr.; VanBiervliet, Alan (1990). Persons with Mental Retardation and Technology Use Patterns and Needs. A questionnaire examining consumer needs, spending, travel, credit options and utilization practices in adaptive/assistive and educational technology was answered by 2,201 Arkansans with disabilities of all ages. This paper emphasizes results relating to Arkansans with mental retardation. Results indicate Medicare/Medicaid as the single most widely used system for acquisition of assistive technology, and the chief function of technology in use was "getting around," a category including wheelchairs, crutches and other mobility aids. While most respondents expressed satisfaction with the technologies they were using, widespread difficulties were reported in travel (22% reported having to travel over 100 miles to receive their technology) and availability of credit plan options (30% of respondents reported personal or family financing of needed equipment). Consumer rights were called into question by findings indicating 45% of respondents were unable to try out equipment prior to purchase. In addition, training with equipment was generally seen as inadequate. Includes approximately 80 references. Descriptors: Access to Education, Access to Information, Accessibility (for Disabled), Appropriate Technology

Strosnider, J. Steve; Grad, John D. (1993). Third-Party Payments. ACA Legal Series, Volume 9. Professional counselors are often uninformed about insurance matters. This monograph is for counselors who wish to participate in third-party reimbursement activities. The text addresses general issues related to professional counselors and health care reimbursement. It describes major health reimbursement plans such as Blue Cross/Blue Shield, CHAMPUS, and Medicaid/Medicare, as well as self-insured plans and private health insurance companies. Federal regulations, which often supersede state statutes, and such concepts as extraterritoriality and freedom of choice, which vary from state to state, are introduced. Although the book explores specific concerns, such as why professional counselors are sometimes not reimbursed and how to help clients understand the reimbursement process, general concepts related to the legal requirements for health care reimbursement, as well as strategies for maximizing reimbursement, are also discussed. Legal issues are only broadly outlined here and it is suggested that mental-health professionals consult with their attorney over specific concerns. The information is intended as a guideline and as an educational resource. Contains a glossary, a list of frequently asked questions, and 19 references. Descriptors: Compensation (Remuneration), Counseling Psychology, Counselors, Fees

Iler, Patrick A. (1982). Graying of the National Budget: The Impact of an Aging Population. The interaction of an aging population and the national budget can best be seen through programs for older people. The key to understanding this interaction lies in linking budget and program costs with demographics, and in observing data over time. Data from three federal budget programs, Social Security's Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Disability Insurance (OASDI), Medicare and Medicaid, and veteran's compensation, pension, and medical care were analyzed along with demographic data on the elderly in the United States. Results suggested that OASDI payments will increase from $124 billion in 1980 to $1,383 billion in 2020. An increase in the number of beneficiaries will account for 12% of the increase. The annual increase in national health care programs from 1965-1980 was related to price inflation; population growth accounted for 7-8 percent of the increase. Inflation accounted for 60% of increased veteran's medical care costs, while population growth accounted for 22% of the increase. Increased benefits contributed 17% to rising veteran's program costs. (Appendix I contains a discussion of the methodology used in compiling this report as well as details of the projections and statistical analyses. Appendix II contains 14 charts of the demographics used in this study.) Descriptors: Aging (Individuals), Data Collection, Demography, Health Insurance

Paprock, Kenneth E. (1990). Patterns of Learning Related to Adapting to Change: A Study of Four Health Care Occupations in the United States. The necessity to adjust to changing circumstances constitutes a motivating force for learning. Implementation of the legislative change in Medicare reimbursement in the United States requires change on the part of the health care system and adaptation by the individuals within that system. Two studies examined ways health care professionals in the areas of finance, medical records, nursing, and social services sought to understand and cope with related change resulting from the new legislation on reimbursement. In the first, a survey of 500 professionals received 213 responses. A follow-up study obtained information from 96 of the 213 original respondents. Because adult and continuing education is increasingly being applied to facilitate the adjustments required by changing circumstances, the findings of the study can be a contribution to both theoreticians and practitioners who find themselves in similar change situations. It was found that most approaches used, including related learning activities and sources of assistance patterns, serve the reestablishment of the status quo and result in little or no change in the functionality of role behavior. (Three tables and 27 references are included.)   [More]  Descriptors: Adjustment (to Environment), Adult Education, Change Strategies, Federal Legislation

White House Conference on Aging, Washington, DC. (1981). White House Conference on Aging (Washington, D.C., November 30-December 3, 1981). Final Report. Volume 3: Recommendations, Post-Conference Survey of Delegates. This third and last volume of the final report of the 1981 White House Conference on Aging presents the results of a post-conference survey of delegates and observers conducted to gain insight about participants' views of Conference recommendations. Part I of the volume presents a detailed description of the methodology of the survey (coding and analysis, and reliability analysis) and both the quantitative and qualitative analyses of the survey results. A detailed analysis is given of the most favored recommendations (i.e., elimination of all restrictions on older workers, expansion of home health care and in-home services, provision of tax credits for families who care for elderly relatives in their homes, organization of services for the elderly using the Older Americans Act network, and medicare reimbursement for preventive care and wellness maintenance) as well as the least favored recommendations, most of which relate to the control of inflation. Part II presents the recommendations from the 14 Conference committees along with a summary of the changes made in committee reports from previous printings. The appendices include the survey instrument and series of tables summarizing survey results by category of respondent.   [More]  Descriptors: Aging (Individuals), Attitude Measures, Committees, Gerontology

O'Hare, William P. (1987). America's Welfare Population: Who Gets What? Population Trends and Public Policy Report No. 13. Welfare programs and the people who use them have a bad public image. Any attempts at welfare reform should include the dissemination of factual information to eliminate the misconceptions. This information should include the following facts: (1) only 60% of poverty stricken households receive welfare; (2) most government services and funds to households are for social security, Medicare and veterans' benefits; (3) welfare programs require applicants to demonstrate need through a means test; (4) most welfare benefits are services rather than cash; (5) the groups most likely to receive welfare are minorities and women with dependent children; (6) states with more generous welfare programs do not attract recipients from other states; (7) only a minority of recipients become long-term welfare families; (8) welfare programs do not contribute to the breakup of families; and (9) welfare does not pull many families above the poverty line. Current initiatives to reform the welfare system are focused on more uniform state eligibility rules, and incentives and training for jobs.   [More]  Descriptors: Economically Disadvantaged, Family Income, Job Training, Poverty

New York City Dept. of City Planning, NY. (1990). Immigrant Entitlements Made (Relatively) Simple: A Pamphlet for Agency Workers. Second Edition. This guide to immigrant entitlements for New York City agencies serving immigrants reflects major changes in immigration law and entitlements law since 1985. The guide focuses on programs administered by the City of New York, but also includes information about some state and federal programs. The guide identifies the following: (1) government programs available to New York City's immigrants; (2) categories of immigrants who are eligible for benefits; (3) documents needed to prove eligibility; and (4) laws, regulations, and administrative guidelines governing each entitlement. The following financial and insurance programs are included: (1) Supplemental Security Income (SSI); (2) income maintenance programs, including Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), Home Relief, Emergency Assistance to Adults, and Emergency Assistance to Families; (3) Medicaid; (4) Food Stamps; (5) Medicare; and (6) Unemployment Insurance. The following service programs are included: (1) Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC); (2) Human Resources Administration; (3) Department of Employment; (4) Department of the Aging; (5) City University of New York (CUNY); (6) Housing Authority; (7) Board of Education; (8) Health and Hospitals Corporation; (9) Department of Health; and (10) Department of Mental Health, Mental Retardation, and Alcoholism Services. A synopsis of the laws and regulations governing immigrant entitlements, a glossary, and a timeline showing the evolution of alien entitlement restrictions since 1972 are included. Descriptors: Eligibility, Federal Programs, Financial Support, Health Services

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. (1988). Debt Collection: More Aggressive Action Needed To Collect Debts Owed by Health Professionals. United States General Accounting Office Report to the Honorable John R. Kasich, House of Representatives. The General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed and evaluated debt collection activities of five programs of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) that provide financial assistance to health professions students and medical facilities. The principal findings include: (1) HRSA changes have improved delinquency rates; however, large dollar amounts in seriously delinquent loans are still being carried; (2) HRSA has not established time frames for schools to determine the collectibility of loans and request write-off approval from HRSA; (3) HRSA's collection efforts were unnecessarily hampered by lack of a comprehensive debt management system, staffing shortages, and failure to follow established procedures; (4) the GAO Inspector General's recommendation of offsetting federal Medicare reimbursements to recover delinquent debts from physicians should be pilot-tested and, if it proves successful, should be implemented as a routine collection step. Comments from the Department of Health and Human Services are appended. A table of data on the average delinquency rates, by percentage, for health professions and nursing student loans from June 30, 1982 to June 30, 1986 is also provided.   [More]  Descriptors: Allied Health Occupations Education, Debt (Financial), Federal Aid, Federal Programs

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Bibliography: Medicare (page 29 of 37)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the Medicare for All website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Thomas T. H. Wan, Edward Fry, Washington National Education Association, Vanda Colman, Knoxville. State Agency for Title I. Tennessee Univ, Jean Greschel, Washington Congress of the U.S, Donald Kennedy, Ole J. Thienhaus, and Peter N. Stearns.

Stearns, Peter N. (1980). Justifying Social History in the Schools. This paper presents a rationale for including social history in American and European history courses at the high school level. Social history topics which can be of special interest to high school students include the history of schools, the history of leisure, the history of health practices, the needs and experiences of various vital groups in society, and the drama of conflicting views between the working classes and middle classes. A major benefit of social history is that it can be taught with an interdisciplinary focus. For example, social science methods and concerns can help students understand a variety of socio-historical issues such as changes in basic human relationships at different periods throughout history (psychology), the role of old people today and during earlier times (gerontology), and medical practices before and after the institution of medicare (the sociology of medicine). Further, a study of social history can give students and teachers useful insights as they compare what society is like today with how it got that way. Specifically, a study of social history can help students analyze present and past trends regarding issues such as crime and can help people place current crime statistics in perspective; can force students to examine fundamental assumptions about the present in relationship to the past; and can promote intelligent discussion of values. Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Educational History, Educational Needs, Educational Objectives

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Ways and Means. (1997). Teaching Hospital and Other Issues Related to Graduate Medical Education. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Ways and Means. House of Representatives, One Hundred Fourth Congress, Second Session (June 11, 1196). This document reports testimony presented on Medicare financing of graduate medical education, as proposed by the Balanced Budget Act of 1995. Witnesses included: (1) Timothy M. Golddfarb, Director, Healthcare Systems (Oregon), who noted the importance of graduate medical education funding to teaching hospitals; (2) Leo P. Brideau of Strong Memorial Hospital (Rochester, New York) who was concerned with protecting the program's viability; (3) Larry Wickless of the American Osteopathic Association, who hoped for increased support for graduate osteopathic programs; (4) Spencer Foreman, who spoke on behalf of the Greater New York Hospital Association concerning the importance of international medical graduates to institutions serving poor populations; (5) William E. Jacott, who spoke for the American Medical Association, which supports changes in the graduate medical education program; (6) Patrick B. Harr, who spoke for the American Academy of Family Physicians, about the physician surplus; (7) Leslie S. Cutler, University of Connecticut Health Center, who suggested establishment of medical education consortiums; (8) Anthony M. Marlon and Jerry Reeves of Sierra Health Services (Las Vegas, Nevada), who described a private-public pilot program to fund education of medical residents; (9) Mary O. Mundlnger, Columbia School of Nursing (New York), who sought funds for graduate nursing education; and (10) Lynn E. Caton, representing the American Academy of Physician Assistants, who sought to make physician assistant programs eligible for such funding. In addition to the testimony, discussions between witnesses and the committee members are also transcribed.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Finance, Federal Aid, Federal Government, Foreign Medical Graduates

State Univ. of New York, Farmingdale. Agricultural and Technical Coll. (1967). SPECIAL PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE I, HIGHER EDUCATION ACT OF 1965, AUGUST 1966 – OCTOBER 1967. FINAL REPORT. IN 1966, THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT FARMINGDALE DEVELOPED THREE NONCREDIT DAYTIME PROGRAMS IN EDUCATION FOR COMMUNITY SERVICE. GATEWAY TO CAREERS FOR WOMEN, A 15-SESSION WORKSHOP, PROVIDED FIELD ASSIGNMENTS, JOBFINDING SKILLS, AND COUNSELING. NEW HORIZONS FOR LATER YEARS WAS A 10-SESSION PROGRAM FOR OLDER MEN AND WOMEN PREPARING FOR RETIREMENT. MEDICARE-AIDE TRAINING PROGRAM PROVIDED A 10-SESSION WORKSHOP TO TRAIN MEN AND WOMEN AS PAID OR VOLUNTEER NURSES AIDES. ALL PROGRAMS INVOLVED GUEST SPEAKERS, FIELD TRIPS, FILMS, NEW TECHNIQUES IN GROUP GUIDANCE, AND CREATIVE TEACHING MATERIALS. ATTENDANCE WAS WELL ABOVE AVERAGE FOR ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS. SOME OF THE PARTICIPANTS RECEIVED TUITION GRANTS AND TRANSPORTATION STIPENDS. INSTRUCTORS INCLUDED A NURSE, A SOCIAL WORKER, AND THREE ASSISTANT INSTRUCTORS WORKING IN A TEAM TEACHING SITUATION. COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT EXCEEDED EXPECTATION AND MEDIA COVERAGE WAS EXTENSIVE, THE GREATEST RESPONSE COMING FROM NEWSPAPER ARTICLES. REQUESTS FOR MATERIALS AND INFORMATION HAVE COME FROM MANY ORGANIZATIONS AND INDIVIDUALS, AND THE STAFF HAVE BEEN INVOLVED IN RELATED CONFERENCES, PROGRAMS, AND ADVISORY GROUPS. DURING THE 1967-68 ACADEMIC YEAR, AN EXPANDED CURRICULUM WILL PROVIDE TRAINING FOR NURSES AIDES, LEADERS, HARD-CORE UNEMPLOYED WOMEN, AND TEACHERS AIDES.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Adult Programs, Attendance Patterns, Career Development

Colman, Vanda; And Others (1987). Till Death Do Us Part: Caregiving Wives of Severely Disabled Husbands. This "gray paper" asserts that the physical, emotional, and financial needs of unpaid caregivers–usually women–have been largely ignored in our national health care policy regarding care for the severely disabled elderly. It discusses the problem of the caregiving role for wives of severely incapacitated husbands, noting that the present health care delivery system is inadequate to address and solve the problems of the caregiving wife for the following reasons: (1) Medicare, the largest government health care program for the elderly, focuses almost exclusively on "acute" care, which in practice means hospital care; (2) Medicaid allocates 40 per cent of its nationwide budget to nursing home care, but a couple must impoverish themselves to qualify the disabled spouse for Medicaid coverage; and (3) other sources of assistance, such as Social Services (Title XX of the Social Security Act), private insurance plans, private nursing agencies, adult day care, or mutual support groups, are either too expensive or too limited to address caregivers' needs. The paper therefore provides a set of strategies to alleviate the burdens of caregiving wives, in view of the inadequacy of our present health care system. Six basic principles affirming the rights and needs of caregivers are outlined, and a strategy for legislative and regulative reform at the federal and state levels is presented. Footnotes are included. Descriptors: Adult Day Care, Alzheimers Disease, Family Caregivers, Federal Programs

Kennedy, Donald (1986). "Can We Help?" Public Service and the Young. Economic and social factors that affect young people's sense of obligation for community service are identified, along with the influence schools and government can exert on students. The recent management of the American political economy has given young people concern for their own survival. College students who will graduate during the 1980s will not have access to the economic advantages afforded their parents. Some evidence indicates that college students today are more oriented toward self-interest and their own financial well-being than previous generations. Students may be responding to the messages they receive from political trends, including the reduction of support for education and the facts that scholarship aid to students is means-tested but Social Security and Medicare are not. However, despite these discouragements, students still have a sense of social responsibility. At Stanford University, a public service center coordinates internship and fellowship programs, a public policy forum, and career advising. A consortium of institutions, the Project for Public Community Service, helps promote service to others and develops networks to match student interns and volunteers to local and regional needs. At the national level, policy reforms need to recognize the importance of social investment in the young. Descriptors: Change Strategies, Citizen Participation, College Students, Economic Factors

Thienhaus, Ole J.; Greschel, Jean (1987). A Model of Nursing Interim Care. In an increasingly cost-conscious health care environment, average length of hospital stay has decreased. Although psychiatric inpatient treatment is largely exempt from the constraints of the Medicare diagnosis related groups (DRG's), length of stay for geropsychiatric hospital services has decreased also. A trend toward higher rates of early readmission and a greater probability of a more restrictive setting has been observed. Community mental health centers have apparently been overwhelmed by the needs of earlier discharged elderly persons. An intermediary program to carry the patient from hospital discharge to ongoing aftercare through a firm establishment of an outpatient therapeutic relationship at a psychiatric aftercare facility was undertaken utilizing nurse therapy. The goal of this intervention was to aid the former psychiatric inpatient in his transition to an outpatient psychiatric system. It was not intended to replace outpatient therapy, but to formalize a link between the helping networks. A preliminary evaluation has shown that the nursing intensive care model may have been a factor in the return to previous rates of recidivism and disposition. Although data demonstrating the impact of nursing interim care apart from other factors is needed, this nurse therapy model does provide continuity of care from hospital ward therapy through the clinic.   [More]  Descriptors: Community Health Services, Cost Effectiveness, Hospitals, Intervention

Administration on Aging (DHHS), Washington, DC. (1987). Where to Turn for Help for Older Persons: A Guide for Action on Behalf of An Older Person. This guide was written to help persons find help when they are faced with an urgent situation regarding an elderly family member, friend, or neighbor. It provides guidance as to where to find help in the community where the older person lives. The first section of the guide contains the most frequently asked questions in significant areas of life, giving each question a page and item number to help readers locate information in the guide. A financial section describes the Older Americans Act, Social Security, Supplemental Security Income, Medicare, Medicaid, other public supported programs, private resources, home equity conversion, property tax exemptions, tax benefits, and senior citizen benefits. A health section looks at medical, psychiatric, hospital, and emergency services; hospice programs; and nursing home care. The community services section discusses information and referral, emergencies, transportation, in-home care, chore services, home improvement, medical equipment, nutrition, respite care, adult day care, counseling, support groups, reassurance, and social activities. Legal issues addressed include power of attorney, durable power of attorney, guardianship, wills, living wills, and other issues. The section on shelter reviews several housing options for older adults. The final section of the guide lists names and telephone numbers for State Agencies on Aging for the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Virgin Islands.   [More]  Descriptors: Advocacy, Community Services, Financial Problems, Health Services

Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. State Agency for Title I. (1976). Consumer Education Reference Manual. This manual contains information for consumer education, which is defined as the process of imparting to an individual the skills, concepts, knowledges, and insights required to help each person evolve his or her own values, evaluate alternative choices in the marketplace, manage personal resources effectively, and obtain the best buys for his or her expenditures. Guidelines for consumers are presented in 20 chapters: (1) Appliances, (2) Automobiles (including automobile insurance), (3) Clothing, (4) Credit, (5) Education, (6) Funerals, (7) Home Furnishings, (8) Housing, (9) Insurance, (10) Legal, (11) Medical, (12) Medicaid, (l3) Medicare, (14) Money Management, (15) Schemes, (16) Selecting and Buying Food, (17) Shopping, (18) Social Security, (19) Wages (including unemployment compensation), (20) Welfare (including the food stamp program). Appendixes list state and local resource information, federal sources of consumer information and complaints, other agencies for information and complaints, and local consumer agencies for information, complaints, and legal services. Addresses in each appendix are listed under topical headings (e.g. family counseling, handicapped, nursing homes), and a topical index is provided for the manual as a whole.   [More]  Descriptors: Consumer Economics, Consumer Education, Consumer Protection, Guides

National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div. (1991). NEA Retirement and Benefits Forum: Selected Proceedings (Clearwater Beach, Florida, October 18-21, 1990). The National Education Association (NEA) Retirement and Benefits Forum is an annual event where leaders, lobbyists, researchers, and trustees of retirement and health and welfare plans meet to learn about and discuss current and future retirement and benefits issues. This report of the 1990 forum contains 10 selected papers and a welcoming speech by Robert F. Chase, vice president of the NEA, who discussed the importance of retirement and benefits issues. Three sections follow this introduction. The first is entitled "Three Critical Issues" and includes three papers: (1) "Pensions and Benefits in the 1990s: Challenges and Opportunities for Public Education Employees" (Dallas Salisbury); (2) "Funding Issues for Public Retirement and Retiree Health Plans" (Sophie M. Korczyk); and (3) "The New Medicare Physician Reimbursement Schedule" (L. Maynard Oss). The second section covers state health plans and also includes three speeches: (1) "The Hawaii Plan" (Marylin Matsunaga); (2) "The New York Proposal" (Dan Beauchamp); and (3) "The Ohio Proposal" (Dennis Roberge). The last section contains four papers that focus on proposals for a national health plan: (1) "The Physicians Proposal" (Steffie Woolhandler); (2) "Tax Reform Model" (Edmund Haislmaier); (3) "A Genuine National Health Insurance Plan" (William Glaser); and (4) "Health Care Reform: The Buy Right Strategy" (Walter McClure). Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Health Care Costs, Health Insurance, Health Programs

Wan, Thomas T. H.; And Others (1989). Effectiveness of Strategies To Contain Costs of the Post-Retirement Health Benefit Program. The management of the cost of post-retirement health benefits (PRHBs) for retirees is a major concern to American corporations because of a declining commitment to the Medicare program by the federal government, new proposed accounting rules that will change the financial treatment of PRHBs, and a growing retiree population. This study was conducted to identify the major predictors of corporate benefit officers' perceptions about recent cost containment efforts. Survey data were obtained from a recent Equicor Health Care Survey (1986) of corporate benefit officers. The study examined (1) the factors accounting for effective organizational control of retiree health benefits, and (2) the profile of an effective organization in containing costs for the post-retirement program evaluation of 71 mothers previously served by TAP organizations that applied more cost-cutting and cost-shifting as well as changing PRHB designs may find those strategies an effective response to financial and competitive pressures. The perceived effectiveness of cost control was unrelated to the amount of coverage change in redesigning benefit plays, nor was it related to organizational size, type of industry, fiscal planning practice, or regional location.   [More]  Descriptors: Cost Effectiveness, Fringe Benefits, Health Insurance, Retirement

Fry, Edward (1986). The Varied Uses of Readability Measurement. Readability formulas have varied uses. In education they are used to match children's reading ability to the difficulty level of material, select stories and books for classroom use and for individual students' particular needs, select textbooks and other reading materials, aid educational research, and check reading materials of newly literate adults. In business, readability formulas are used by manufacturers concerned with safety, product liability, and proper use; by companies and banks concerned with the difficulty of their consumer publications; and by companies concerned with advertising effectiveness. Readability formulas are used in court cases, such as those involving Medicare and the readability of product labels. Governmental concerns with readability involve Plain Language Laws that affect consumer oriented contracts, federal government publications, military publications, and drivers license manuals. Readability formulas are also used heavily by the publishers of elementary and high school level textbooks, and by newspapers, resulting in the change of the readability level of front page stories from grade 16 to the present level of grade 11. In conclusion, readability has helped every literate person as well as those about to become literate. Descriptors: Business, Content Analysis, Difficulty Level, Educational Research

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging. (1975). Developments in Aging: 1974 and January-April 1975. A Report of the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate Pursuant to S. Res. 267, March 1, 1974. The Special Committee on Aging, established in 1961 by Senate Resolution 33, Eighty-seventh Congress, was charged with making a full and complete study and investigation of problems and opportunities of older people, including problems and opportunities of maintaining health, of assuring adequate income, of finding employment, of engaging in productive and rewarding activity, of securing proper housing, and, when necessary, of obtaining care or assistance. The committee has examined "the administration strategy for cutbacks in aging"; "immediate and long-range directions in social security"; medicare and proposed national health insurance plans; nursing homes; employment problems related to recession; housing ligislation; the Older Americans Act; training, research, and education; transportation; and, volunteer and community service by the elderly. Recommendations are made for legislative action and change in administrative policies. Also included are "Minority Views" and five "Appendices": "Analysis of Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974," Highlights of the study "The Myth and Reality of Aging in America" conducted by Louis Harris and Associates for the National Council on the Aging, Inc., "New Federalism and Aging,""Reports from Federal Departments and Agencies," and "Committee Hearings and Reports."   [More]  Descriptors: Delivery Systems, Economic Opportunities, Employment Opportunities, Federal Government

Kreisman, Leonard T. (1996). A Greying Faculty: Challenge or Stumbling Block to the Twenty-First Century. Although even a few years ago researchers were suggesting that faculty aging and the resulting retirements would result in a huge demand for new hires, job opportunities have become scarce for recent graduates of doctoral programs. It is important, however, that colleges be able to hire new personnel to bring new ideas into the institution. In considering efforts to induce more "greying" faculty to retire, colleges should take into account the effect of later retirement in terms of the relative lack of diversity of older faculty and the possibility that they will be out of touch with new developments in their discipline. Specifically, early retirement efforts must address the following issues: (1) economic security and inflation, by, for example, crediting additional years of service to early retirees to increase their pension; (2) health coverage, including the possibility of continuing coverage to retirees until they are eligible for Medicare; (3) flexibility, by offering phased-out retirement options through the gradual reduction of teaching loads over a 5-year period; and (4) personal worth factors, including the need to treat retiring faculty as individuals who have made and can still make a contribution to the institution by offering them continued access to library and computer services and keeping them informed of developments. Includes two sample retirement program models. A list of questions for prospective retirees is appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Aging in Academia, College Faculty, Early Retirement, Health Insurance

Anderson, John B. (1973). The Politics of Health Care. Before the mid-1960's the Federal role in health care was extremely limited, but technological breakthroughs, the new importance of hospitals, and the recognition that the poor and elderly have been underserved prompted Congress to pass the Medicare and Medicaid package in 1966. Since then the Federal share of the health care dollar has risen by more than 60 percent. Soaring hospital costs resulted from disconnected and overlapping delivery systems and the tendency of the legislation to bias coverage toward inpatient care. The Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) bill provides a more balanced approach with a variety of services, outpatient care, and special facilities for a flat yearly fee. Since private health insurance is unprofitable, consideration is being given to a national insurance program to provide effective coordination between organized modes of health care delivery. It would consist of two segments–the larger paid by workers and employers and the smaller subsidized by the government to aid the poor. A carefully considered plan must be pressed to completion and promptly considered in Congress.   [More]  Descriptors: Costs, Health Insurance, Health Services, Hospitals

Dickinson, William B., Jr., Ed. (1967). Editorial Research Reports on Health Topics. Nine reports published in this volume reflect the link between public health and national power. Not only the health problems of underdeveloped nations must be considered, but also the health problems of industrially advanced societies, those peculiar to life in an increasingly urban setting. The dilemmas posed by gains in medical science are examined through the following topics: medical costs and the impact of Medicare; the introduction, safety, and probably spread in the use of oral contraceptives; new approaches to mental illness, including home-based care and changes in the public mental hospital; the anatomy of suicide; treatment of alcoholism, revealing growth in its interest, approaches to its abuse, and obstacles in treatment; the rising threat of air pollution, critical nature of the problem and measures to curb it; progress in cancer research; moral issues in prolongation of life together with replacement of disabled vital organs and the slow progress of related research; and the legalization of marijuana–impact on American youth, use and control of hazardous drugs, and controversy over its dangers. Descriptors: Environmental Influences, Health Services, Medical Services, Problems

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